Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition can attenuate the effects of aging on renal function and structure; however, its effect on mitochondrial aging is unknown. To investigate whether an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (losartan) could mitigate age-associated changes in kidney mitochondria, male Wistar rats (14 mo old) received during 8 mo water containing either enalapril (10 mg/kg/day) (Enal), or losartan (30 mg/kg/day) (Los), or no additions (Old). Four-month-old untreated rats (Young) were also studied. In Old rats mitochondrial respiratory control, ADP/O, nitric oxide synthase activity, and uncoupling protein 2 levels were lower (46, 42, 27, and 76%, respectively), and Mn-SOD activity was higher (70%) than in Young, Enal, and Los rats. In Old rats mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production was higher than in both Young (197%) and Enal or Los (40%) rats. In Old rats, kidney GSH/GSSG was lower than in both Young (80%) and Enal (57%) or Los (68%) rats. In Old rats electron microscopy showed effacement of microvilli in tubular epithelial cells, ill-defined mitochondrial cristae, lower mitochondrial numbers, and enhanced number of osmiophilic bodies relative to Young, Enal, or Los rats. In conclusion, enalapril and losartan can protect against both age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural alterations, underscoring the role of RAS in the aging process. An association with oxidative stress modulation is suggested.
Experimental studies indicate that angiotensin II (ANG II) through its type 1 receptor (AT1) promotes cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze whether chronic long-term inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can prevent most of the deleterious effects due to aging in the cardiovascular system of the normal rat. The main objective was to compare two strategies of ANG II blockade: a converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) and an AT1 receptor blocker (AT1RB). A control group remained untreated; treatment was initiated 2 wk after weaning. A CEI, enalapril (10 mg ⅐ kg Ϫ1 ⅐ day Ϫ1 ), or an AT 1RB, losartan (30 mg ⅐ kg Ϫ1 ⅐ day Ϫ1 ), was used to inhibit the RAS. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, and water and food intake were recorded over the whole experimental period. Heart, aorta, and mesenteric artery weight as well as histological analysis of cardiovascular structure were performed at 6 and 18 mo. Twenty animals in each of the three experimental groups were allowed to die spontaneously. The results demonstrated a significant protective effect on the function and structure of the cardiovascular system in all treated animals. Changes observed at 18 mo of age in the hearts and aortas were quite significant, but each treatment completely abolished this deterioration. The similarity between the results detected with either enalapril or losartan treatment clearly indicates that most of the effects are exerted through AT 1 receptors. An outstanding finding was the significant and similar prolongation of life span in both groups of treated animals compared with untreated control animals. losartan; enalapril; heart; aorta; life span THE NATURAL PROCESS OF AGING is related to a progressive modification, and ultimately, a loss of organ function. These alterations are common to all species. In general, there is a correlation between the structural and functional changes associated with aging. In mammals, degenerative processes such as arteriosclerosis, the development of senile plaques in the brain, and the replacement of functional parenchyma by fibroconnective tissue in a variety of organs are considered manifestations of aging (19,41).Ultrastructurally, a reduction in the number of cellular organelles such as mitochondria is common in the aging process (13,21,36). Lifelong free radical production could play a main role in the reduction of the number and in both structural and functional mitochondria modifications (6,20,38). It has been widely postulated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are causally involved in the aging process (19,20). In this sense, earlier data (4, 17) have confirmed that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the aorta and nitric oxide (NO) production diminish with age, whereas chronic long-term administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) inhibitors maintains endothelial NOS activity in old animals. Moreover, the mitochondria from hearts of aged rats chronically treated with ANG II inhibitors were found to have increased NOS activity and decrease...
Mitochondria are energy-producing organelles that conduct other key cellular tasks. Thus, mitochondrial damage may impair various aspects of tissue functioning. Mitochondria generate oxygen- and nitrogen-derived oxidants, being themselves major oxidation targets. Dysfunctional mitochondria seem to contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension, cardiac failure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, atherosclerosis, and aging. Mitochondrial proteins and metabolic intermediates participate in various cellular processes, apart from their well-known roles in energy metabolism. This emphasizes the participation of dysfunctional mitochondria in disease, notwithstanding that most evidences supporting this concept come from animal and cultured-cell studies. Mitochondrial oxidant production is altered by several factors related to vascular pathophysiology. Among these, angiotensin-II stimulates mitochondrial oxidant release leading to energy metabolism depression. By lowering mitochondrial oxidant production, angiotensin-II inhibition enhances energy production and protects mitochondrial structure. This seems to be one of the mechanisms underlying the benefits of angiotensin-II inhibition in hypertension, diabetes, and aging rodent models. If some of these findings can be reproduced in humans, they would provide a new perspective on the implications that RAS-blockade can offer as a therapeutic strategy. This review intends to present available information pointing to mitochondria as targets for therapeutic Ang-II blockade in human renal and CV disease.
Abstract-Oxidative stress is involved in both the pathogenesis and complications of diabetes. ACE inhibitors can slow the progression of cardiac and renal impairments related to diabetes. The effect of enalapril treatment on oxidative stress and tissue injury was studied in hearts, kidneys, and livers from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into the following groups: streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, single intraperitoneal dose), streptozotocinϩenalapril (20 mg enalapril/L drinking water), and control (intraperitoneal saline). Seven months after streptozotocin injection, organs were studied by light microscopy and collagen III immunolabeling. Tissue lesions and collagen labeling were graded by a semiquantitative score (0 to 4). Total glutathione content, glutathione redox status (reduced/oxidized glutathione), antioxidant enzyme activities, protein-associated sulfhydryls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and fluorescent chromolipids were determined in tissue homogenates. Glycemia was higher in both the streptozotocin and streptozotocinϩenalapril groups relative to the control group. In the streptozotocin group, creatinine clearance and body weight were lower, and systolic blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion were higher than in the streptozotocinϩenalapril and control groups. Heart, kidney, and liver lesion/labeling scores were significantly higher in the streptozotocin group compared with the streptozotocinϩenalapril and control groups. Kidney and liver total glutathione was lower in the streptozotocin group relative to the control group (PϽ0.05). Enalapril treatment significantly attenuated the reduction of total glutathione. In the heart, kidney, and liver, both glutathione and proteins were relatively more oxidized in the streptozotocin group relative to the control group (PϽ0.05). Protein and glutathione oxidation were attenuated in the streptozotocinϩenalapril group in the 3 tissues studied (PϽ0.05). Enalapril treatment attenuated the oxidation of lipids in the heart and kidney (PϽ0.05). Tissue fibrosis scores were inversely correlated with (1) both total glutathione and reduced/oxidized glutathione in heart, kidney, and liver and (2) glutathione reductase activity in the kidney. These results suggest that in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, the protective action of enalapril might be mediated, at least in part, by its effect on tissue oxidant/antioxidant status.
This review attempts to show that there may be a relationship between inflammatory processes induced by chronic overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the worldwide deficiency of vitamin D (VitD) and that both disorders are probably associated with environmental factors. Low VitD levels represent a risk factor for several apparently different diseases, such as infectious, autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancer. Moreover, VitD insufficiency seems to predispose to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and chronic vascular inflammation. On the other hand, inappropriate stimulation of the RAS has also been associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension, heart attack, stroke, and hypertrophy of the left ventricle and vascular smooth muscle cells. Because VitD receptors (VDRs) and RAS receptors are almost distributed in the same tissues, a possible link between VitD and the RAS is even more plausible. Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, both systems were developed simultaneously, actively participating in the regulation of inflammatory and immunological mechanisms. Changes in RAS activity and activation of the VDR seem to be inversely related; thus any changes in one of these systems would have a completely opposite effect on the other, making it possible to speculate that the two systems could have a feedback relationship. In fact, the pandemic of VitD deficiency could be the other face of increased RAS activity, which probably causes lower activity or lower levels of VitD. Finally, from a therapeutic point of view, the combination of RAS blockade and VDR stimulation appears to be more effective than either RAS blockade or VDR stimulation individually.
Obesity and related diseases are an important and growing health concern in the United States and around the world. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are now the primary sources of added sugars in Americans' diets. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies, including abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, fatty liver, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Trends in all of these alterations are related to the consumption of dietary fructose and the introduction of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a sweetener in soft drinks and other foods. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests a progressive association between HFCS consumption, obesity, and the other injury processes. However, experimental HFCS consumption seems to produce some of the changes associated with metabolic syndrome even without increasing the body weight. Metabolic damage associated with HFCS probably is not limited to obesity-pathway mechanisms.
Protein and lipid oxidation-mainly by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS)-was proposed as a crucial determinant of health and lifespan. Angiotensin II (Ang II) enhances ROS production by activating NAD(P)H oxidase and uncoupling endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Ang II also stimulates mtROS production, which depresses mitochondrial energy metabolism. In rodents, renin-angiotensin system blockade (RAS blockade) increases survival and prevents age-associated changes. RAS blockade reduces mtROS and enhances mitochondrial content and function. This suggests that Ang II contributes to the ageing process by prompting mitochondrial dysfunction. Since Ang II is a pleiotropic peptide, the age-protecting effects of RAS blockade are expected to involve a variety of other mechanisms. Caloric restriction (CR)-an age-retarding intervention in humans and animals-and RAS blockade display a number of converging effects, i.e. they delay the manifestations of hypertension, diabetes, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and cancer; increase body temperature; reduce body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1; ameliorate insulin sensitivity; lower protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation, and mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production; and increase uncoupling protein-2 and sirtuin expression. A number of these overlapping effects involve changes in mitochondrial function. In CR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) seem to contribute to age-retardation partly by regulating mitochondrial function. RAS inhibition up-regulates PPARs; therefore, it is feasible that PPAR modulation is pivotal for mitochondrial protection by RAS blockade during rodent ageing. Other potential mechanisms that may underlie RAS blockade's mitochondrial benefits are TGF-β down-regulation and up-regulation of Klotho and sirtuins. In conclusion, the available data suggest that RAS blockade deserves further research efforts to establish its role as a potential tool to mitigate the growing problem of age-associated chronic disease.
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