Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are known as highly efficient motors and are slowly replacing induction motors in diverse industries. PMSM systems are nonlinear and consist of time-varying parameters with high-order complex dynamics. High performance applications of PMSMs require their speed controllers to provide a fast response, precise tracking, small overshoot and strong disturbance rejection ability. Sliding mode control (SMC) is well known as a robust control method for systems with parameter variations and external disturbances. This paper investigates the current status of implementation of sliding mode control speed control of PMSMs. Our aim is to highlight various designs of sliding surface and composite controller designs with SMC implementation, which purpose is to improve controller’s robustness and/or to reduce SMC chattering. SMC enhancement using fractional order sliding surface design is elaborated and verified by simulation results presented. Remarkable features as well as disadvantages of previous works are summarized. Ideas on possible future works are also discussed, which emphasize on current gaps in this area of research.
This paper investigates speed regulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system based on sliding mode control (SMC). Sliding mode control has been vastly applied for speed control of PMSM. However, continuous SMC enhancement studies are executed to improve the performance of conventional SMC in terms of tracking and disturbance rejection properties as well as to reduce chattering effects. By introducing fractional calculus in the sliding mode manifold, a novel fractional order sliding mode controller is proposed for the speed loop. The proposed fractional order sliding mode speed controller is designed with a sliding surface that consists of both fractional differentiation and integration. Stability of the proposed controller is proved using Lyapunov stability theorem. The simulation and experimental results show the superiorities of the proposed method in terms of faster convergence, better tracking precision and better anti-disturbance rejection properties. In addition, chattering effect of this enhanced SMC is smaller compared to those of conventional SMC. Last but not least, a comprehensive comparison table summarizes key performance indexes of the proposed controller with respect to conventional integer order controller.
A fractional order sliding mode control with PID sliding surface design (FOSMC-PID) is proposed in this research. This controller incorporates fractional calculus which has a slower energy transfer compared to integer order calculus in order to suppress the chattering. Stability of this controller is analyzed using Lyapunov stability theorem. Simulation results proved that the proposed FOSMC speed controller performs as a robust and fasf anti-disturbance controller to regulate the speed of a PMSM and proven its advantages against SMC controllers. The proposed sliding surface design also improves the FOSMC in terms of torque ripple reduction, chattering reduction and anti-disturbance properties, compared to FOSMC with PI or PD sliding surface.
This paper proposed a fractional order PID sliding mode control (FOSMC-PID) for speed regulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Fractional calculus has been incorporated in sliding mode controller (SMC) design to enhance chattering suppression ability. However, the design of fractional sliding surface is crucial to ensure that speed tracking accuracy is not jeopardized. The proposed controller is designed with a fractional order PID sliding surface, which balances the characteristics of sliding surface with PI or PD structure in terms of robustness and dynamic performance of the controller. By simulation, speed tracking is proven to be faster and more robust with the proposed controller compared to SMC with integer order. Both integration and derivative terms in the surface design outperform FOSMC-PI and FOSMC-PD in terms of disturbance rejection and chattering. Experimental validation proves the advantage of the proposed controller in terms of robustness.
The wide use of machine and machinery in the construction industry can reduce the dependency on foreign workers. The Construction Industry Development Board is formulating a strategic plan to promote the use of machine and machinery in the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to study the level and status of the usage machine and machinery among the G7 contractors at construction sites. The instrument used in the study consist of questionnaire and interviews. Based on the literature findings, there are 9 types of machine and 9 types machinery used in the construction industry. The percentage use of machine and machinery as well as the level of mechanisation for each phase of construction is at level 1, where the machine and machinery is still driven by the operator and do not involved high technology. The main recommendation in this study is to provide training on the latest information on machine and machinery and CPD (Continue Professional Development) training to promote the use of machine and machinery. In addition, the offering better incentives such as tax breaks and loan facilities should be awarded and provided by the government to activate the economic growth.
The article provides an overview of studies on the causes of the formation of hydrogen sulfide in anaerobic conditions of urban sewage systems and methods for neutralizing toxic reagent sulfur-containing compounds. It is noted that the presence of sulfur compounds and organic components in sewage flow leads to the formation and release of hydrogen sulfide into the atmosphere of settlements. Three main categories of methods for purifying sewage wastewater from hydrogen sulfide are presented. In this work, a complex alumina-ferrous coagulant has been developed from Kazakh raw materials. Based on natural ferruginous diatomite and middlings of sintered alumina, a complex alumina-ferrous coagulant has been synthesized, which is effective in purifying wastewater from hydrogen sulfide, accelerating the processes of sedimentation and clarification of sewage slurries. Experimental results also show that with the supply of increased amounts of coagulant, oil and oil films disappear from the surface of the cylinder, an almost complete purification of effluents from hydrogen sulfide compounds occurs, and the color of the liquid part is greatly reduced. In addition, the advantage of the developed reagent is that it is presented in the form of fine powder and can be easily dosed and added to a canalization pump station to interact with diluted hydrogen sulfide and be transported to sewage fields. Compared to other proposed methods in previous works, the reagent is suitable to be used directly in sewage systems such as sewage waters treatment plants and collectors to prevent hydrogen sulfide emission into the air atmosphere of populated areas, as well as at city sewage water treatment stations after air tanks and before secondary clarifiers to obtain better purified water suitable for watering agricultural plants.
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