Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity among children in developed countries and accounts for an incidence of 10-40 cases per 1000 children in the first 5 years of life. Given the clinical, social and economic importance of CAP, there is general agreement that prompt and adequate therapy is essential to reduce the impact of the disease. The aim of this discussion paper is to consider critically the available data concerning the treatment of uncomplicated pediatric CAP and to consider when, how and for how long it should be treated. This review has identified the various reasons that make it difficult to establish a rational approach to the treatment of pediatric CAP, including the definition of CAP, the absence of a pediatric CAP severity score, the difficulty of identifying the etiology, limited pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) studies, the high resistance of the most frequent respiratory pathogens to the most widely used anti-infectious agents and the lack of information concerning the changes in CAP epidemiology following the introduction of new vaccines against respiratory pathogens. More research is clearly required in various areas, such as the etiology of CAP and the reasons for its complications, the better definition of first- and second-line antibiotic therapies (including the doses and duration of parenteral and oral antibiotic treatment), the role of antiviral treatment and on how to follow-up patients with CAP. Finally, further efforts are needed to increase vaccination coverage against respiratory pathogens and to conduct prospective studies of their impact.
Brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most destructive diseases of rice. This study investigated some physiological and biochemical changes on rice leaves infected by B. oryzae. Rice plants (cv. "Oochikara") were grown for 35 days in hydroponic culture and inoculated with B. oryzae. Leaf samples were assessed for disease severity and also collected to determine lipid peroxidation (equivalents of malondialdehyde acid-MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), and pigment concentrations. Gas exchange parameters were also evaluated. Brown spot severity increased over time, which was associated with increased MDA concentration and high EL. Chlorophyll (Chl) concentrations were significantly lower at 144 h after inoculation (hai) as compared to leaves from non-inoculated plants. At 144 hai, the concentration of total carotenoids (Car) was less than on 72 hai, and the Chl a+b/Car ratio was significantly lower on inoculated plants as compared to their noninoculated counterparts. Overall, chlorophylls were more affected by fungal infection than were carotenoids. The net carbon assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were reduced by about 65% in plants at 144 hai as compared to non-inoculated plants, but the internal CO 2 concentration was unresponsive to infection. Changes in photosynthesis were largely related to both impaired light capture ability and decreased mesophyll capacity to fix CO 2 . It can be concluded that the infectious process of B. oryzae on rice affects the leaf physiology mainly through the damage to the cells, basically at membrane level.
The prevalence of DM and impaired glucose tolerance was lower in this sample compared to the Brazilian population. However, the prevalence of obesity was higher, and that of hypertension was similar. Nutritional guidance and encouragement of physical activity are recommended in Jaguapiru as preventive measures for DM.
The objective of this study was to understand the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) in bean cultivars classified as resistant (Manteigão Fosco 11), intermediate (VP8) and susceptible (Meia Noite). Plants of the three cultivars were inoculated at 10 days after emergence with a suspension of 1×10 6 conidia of Fop per mL. At 43 days after the inoculation, stem segments were observed with a scanner electronic microscope. The cultivars Manteigão Fosco 11 and VP8 presented an occluding material in the xylem vessels, which may have restricted tissue colonization by Fop. The resistance of bean cultivars to Fop seemed also to be explained by structural differences in the xylem tissue. Key words: Phaseolus vulgaris, Fusarium wilt, host defense.The fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. phaseoli Kendrick & Snyder (Fop) is the causal agent of the Fusarium wilt on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and is present in all the regions that produce beans in the world (Alves-Santos et al., 2002;Abawi & Pastor-Corrales, 1990;Schwartz & McMillan, 1989;Buruchara & Camacho, 2000). The inadequate rotation of cultures, especially in areas irrigated with central pivot, the lack of preventive measures of control of the pathogen dissemination and the increase of soil compaction made the Fusarium wilt one of the most important bean diseases in Brazil (Paula Júnior et al., 2006).The dark, thick-walled chlamydospores are the longterm survival structures in soil (Abawi & Pastor-Corrales, 1990). Management practices alone may not be enough to keep the disease in low levels of intensity. Thus, the most efficient and viable alternative for the control of this disease is the use of resistant cultivars (Abawi, 1989;Abawi & Pastor-Corrales, 1990;Paula Júnior et al., 2006).The pathogen is capable of penetrating intact root tissue, although penetration of older parts of root and hypocotyl tissue also occurs, usually through wounds or natural openings (Abawi, 1989;Dongo & Müller, 1969;Duque & Müller, 1969). After penetration, hyphae of Fop move inter-and intracellularly and invade the xylem vessels (Mace et al., 1981). The fungus is confined to xylem vessels until the later stages of disease development, although limited invasion of the adjacent tissues may occur; growth of hyphae and transportation of microconidia in the xylem vessels are observed in susceptible cultivars (Abawi, 1989). On the other hand, in resistant plants the colonization between adjacent xylem vessels is restricted, probably as a result of chemical and structural alterations (Mace et al., 1981), including vascular occlusion by the formation of gel plugs, tyloses, deposition of additional wall layers and infusion of these structures with phenols and other metabolites (Mace et al., 1981).Although there are some reports about the differences in the histopathology of stem tissues from resistant and susceptible bean cultivars infected by Fop, detailed studies that approach the infectious process in plant tissues are scarce, especially compari...
Areolate mildew, caused by the fungus Ramularia gossypii (Speg.) Cif., is the most important foliar disease on cotton. There are a few products available to the growers to manage this disease among them the fungicides tryazol and strobilurine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar application of potassium silicate, 'calda Viçosa' e protector fungicides (Mancozeb and C l o r o t h a l o n y l ) t o c o n t r o l a r e o l a t e m i l d e w o n c o t t o n . T h e potassium silicate was not efficient to control the disease with s e v e r i t y o f 1 5 . 3 8 % , c a n o p y q u a l i t y a t 1 6 6 d a y s a f t e r p l a n t emergence of 38. Palavras-chave: nutrição de plantas, silício, Ramularia gossypii.em caroço de 136,11 @ ha -1 e área abaixo da curva de progresso da mancha de Ramularia de 644, 598 e 172 nos terços inferior, médio e superior, respectivamente, com valores semelhantes à testemunha sem fungicida. A calda viçosa proporcionou satisfatório controle da doença não diferindo em termos de produtividade dos tratamentos com piraclostrobin e ou tebuconazol, sendo o incremento de produtividade em relação à testemunha de 88%. Os fungicidas mancozeb e clorotalonil em mistura com calda Viçosa ou com tebuconazole foram eficientes no controle da mancha de Ramularia, destacando-se o fungicida mancozeb em mistura com tebuconazol.areolate mildew progress curve of 644, 598 and 172 at the lower, medium and higher canoy, respectively, with these all values being s i m i l a r t o t h e c h e c k t r e a t m e n t ( n o f u n g i c i d e a p p l i e d ) . T h e treatment with 'Calda Viçosa' gave the best disease control and d i d n o t d i f f e r f r o m t h e t r e a t m e n t s w i t h P y r a c l o s t r o b i n o r Tebuconazole in terms of yield, but showed an increase of 88% in yield compared to the check treatment. The fungicides Mancozeb and Clorothalonyl mixed with 'Calda Viçosa' or with Tebuconazole were efficient to control the disease, especially the mixture of Mancozeb with Tebuconazole.No Brasil, devido às condições climáticas favoráveis, são crescentes os problemas com doenças em algodoeiro, como, por exemplo, a mancha de Ramularia [Ramularia gossypii (Speg.) Cif. forma anamórfica ou Mycosphaerella areola (J. Ehrlich & F. A. Wolf) forma teleomórfica], também conhecida como falso oídio (6, 16). Esta doença encontra-se disseminada em praticamente todas as áreas de cultivo do país (2). Outrora era tida como de importância secundária no algodoeiro, pois ocorria no final do ciclo da cultura e não comprometia a produção. Atualmente, no entanto, tem merecido destaque em função de sua ocorrência desde o início do ciclo da cultura, promovendo desfolha precoce, o que acarreta em redução da produção e da qualidade da fibra, além do custo de manejo (10, 19). Cia et al. (6) demonstraram que nas condições edafoclimáticas do Mato Grosso, a redução de produtividade pode chegar a 75% em variedades mais suscetíveis à doença.Os sintomas consistem de lesões angulosas entre as nervuras, medindo de 1 a 3 mm...
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