Fish fauna assessments with traditional catch methods are undesired in marine reserves. Underwater visual census on the other hand is biased due to fish-diver interactions, such as shyness or avoidance behavior of large-bodied target species. This study presents the first marine ichthyofauna inventory of the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, off northeastern Brazil, sampled with non-destructive, independent Baited Remote Underwater Video Systems (BRUVS). High fish species richness, totaling 66 species from 28 families and 10 orders, including five elasmobranch species and other large predatory fish, such as barracudas, groupers and snappers, were recorded from 81 underwater video samples. Additionally, all of the 4,398 individuals sighted were associated to up to four different benthic habitat types. A catalog of underwater fish images and a detailed species list with additional information, such as conservation status, are provided.
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