Next-generation sequencing of the hypervariable V3 region of the 16s rRNA gene isolated from serial stool specimens collected from 31 patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed to elucidate variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome in the course of allogeneic SCT. Metagenomic analysis was complemented by strain-specific enterococcal PCR and indirect assessment of bacterial load by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of urinary indoxyl sulfate. At the time of admission, patients showed a predominance of commensal bacteria. After transplantation, a relative shift toward enterococci was observed, which was more pronounced under antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of neutropenic infections. The shift was particularly prominent in patients that developed subsequently or suffered from active gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The mean proportion of enterococci in post-transplant stool specimens was 21% in patients who did not develop GI GVHD as compared with 46% in those that subsequently developed GI GVHD and 74% at the time of active GVHD. Enterococcal PCR confirmed predominance of Enterococcus faecium or both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in these specimens. As a consequence of the loss of bacterial diversity, mean urinary indoxyl sulfate levels dropped from 42.5 ± 11 µmol/L to 11.8 ± 2.8 µmol/L in all post-transplant samples and to 3.5 ± 3 µmol/L in samples from patients with active GVHD. Our study reveals major microbiome shifts in the course of allogeneic SCT that occur in the period of antibiotic treatment but are more prominent in association with GI GVHD. Our data indicate early microbiome shifts and a loss of diversity of the intestinal microbiome that may affect intestinal inflammation in the setting of allogeneic SCT.
Participants: Individuals older than 2 years undergoing total skin examination were consecutively recruited between October 1, 2008, and May 31, 2009, and, based on their age, assigned to 1 of 8 groups. For each patient, the location and dermoscopic pattern of all nevi on the torso were recorded. Nevi were dermoscopically subclassified as globular, reticular, mixed (reticularglobular) pattern with peripheral or central globules, or unspecified pattern. Main Outcome Measure: Frequency of dermoscopic nevus subtypes stratified by patient age and location of the nevi. Results: A total of 5481 nevi in 480 individuals were evaluated. The number of all nevus subgroups, except for unspecified pattern nevi, significantly increased before and decreased after the fourth decade of life. Globular nevi were most prevalent on the upper trunk in children and adolescents; the number decreased consistently after the second decade of life. The reticular pattern was the most common nevus pattern after the second decade of life and the most common nevus subgroup on the upper and middle back. Although uncommon, central globular nevi also showed an age-dependent trend, similar to that of reticular nevi. Nevi with the peripheral globular pattern declined rapidly after the third decade of life and were no longer observed after the sixth decade. The number of unspecified pattern nevi was stable across all age groups. Conclusion: Age, dermoscopic pattern, and location of nevi should be jointly considered when evaluating melanocytic lesions.
SUMMARY Atg16L1 mediates the cellular degradative process of autophagy and is considered a critical regulator of inflammation based on its genetic association with inflammatory bowel disease. Here we find that Atg16L1 deficiency leads to an exacerbated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a mouse model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Atg16L1-deficient allo-HSCT recipients with GVHD displayed increased T cell proliferation due to increased dendritic cell (DC) numbers and co-stimulatory molecule expression. Reduced autophagy within DCs was associated with lysosomal abnormalities and decreased amounts of A20, a negative regulator of DC activation. These results broaden the function of Atg16L1 and the autophagy pathway to include a role in limiting a DC-mediated response during inflammatory disease, such as GVHD.
Our objective was to identify the sites of interaction of cannabinoids with cardiovascular sympathetic regulation in the rat. Effects on sympathetic tone were first determined in anaesthetised animals following i.v. administration of the drugs. Central effects were evaluated in anaesthetised rats receiving microinjections of cannabinoids into brain stem nuclei. Peripheral effects were identified in pithed rats with electrically stimulated sympathetic outflow. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, i.v. injection of the cannabinoid agonists WIN55212-2 and CP55940 decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate and the plasma noradrenaline concentration. These effects were antagonized by the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A. The bradycardia was abolished by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methylatropine. The decreases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate caused by cannabinoids in ventilated rats were much less pronounced than in spontaneously breathing rats. Microinjection of WIN55212-2 into the nucleus tractus solitarii had no effect. Microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata, WIN55212-2 lowered mean arterial pressure slightly without changing other parameters. In pithed rats, WIN55212-2 inhibited the increases in mean arterial pressure, heart rate and the plasma noradrenaline concentration evoked by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow. Our results show that activation of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors induces sympathoinhibition and enhancement of cardiac vagal tone, leading to hypotension and bradycardia. Presynaptic inhibition of noradrenaline release from terminals of postganglionic sympathetic neurons is the major component of the sympathoinhibition, but an effect in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata may also contribute. The cannabinoid-evoked cardiovascular depression depends strongly on the respiratory state of the animals.
This study investigated occurrence of microplastic particles in digestive tracts of fishes from the Amazon River estuary. A total of 189 fish specimens representing 46 species from 22 families was sampled from bycatch of the shrimp fishery. Microplastic particles removed from fish gastrointestinal tracts were identified using Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR). In total, 228 microplastic particles were removed from gastrointestinal tracts of 26 specimens representing 14 species (30% of those examined). Microplastic particles were categorized as pellets (97.4%), sheets (1.3%), fragments (0.4%) and threads (0.9%), with size ranging from 0.38 to 4.16 mm. There was a positive correlation between fish standard length and number of particles found in gastrointestinal tracts. The main polymers identified by ATR-FTIR were polyamide, rayon and polyethylene. These findings provide the first evidence of microplastic contamination of biota from the Amazon estuary and northern coast of Brazil.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates) was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001) and P. multocida (p = 0.002). Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.
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