SUMMARY:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal protein and energy restriction during lactation on mandible dimensions of pups (female) at aging. At parturition, Wistar rat dams were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) control group (C) -free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23% protein, 2) protein-energy restricted group (PER) -free access to an isoenergetic, protein-restricted diet containing 8% protein, and 3) energy-restricted group (ER) -fed with restricted amounts of a standard laboratory diet. At weaning (d21), all pups were separated of dams and received free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23% protein until 90 days (d90), when the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. The dimensions of excised pup mandible were measured directly using pre-established 3 anatomical points. Morphometric analysis showed that most of the measurements in the ER and PER groups were significantly lower than in the control group, with the greatest reductions occurring in the PER group. These results show that protein and energy restriction during lactation have an important influence on pup mandible development and continue through the aging process.
SUMMARY:Anatomical variations in the formation of the sural nerve are common, although the topographical localization of this nerve is constant. In this report, we describe the histological analysis of anomalous course of the medial sural cutaneous nerve which descended through the gastrocnemius via a tunnel formed within the muscle and fascia. This anatomical curiosity are clinically important when evaluating sensory axonal loss in distal axonal neuropathies since sural nerve mononeuropathy is less likely to occur.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.