AIM: To analyze the relationship between the glycated albumin (GA) to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ratio and the histological grading of liver fibrosis. METHODS: The study retrospectively included consecutive hepatitis C virus positive chronic liver disease patients (n = 142) who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy between January 2008 and March 2010 at our institution. The ratios of GA/HbA1c were calculated in all patients to investigate the relationship with the degree of the liver fibrosis. The values of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), an excellent marker for the evaluation of liver fibrosis, were also calculated. In addition, we combined the ratio of GA/HbA1c and the APRI in order to improve our ability to detect the presence of significant liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Sixty-one (43%) patients had either no fibrosis or minimal fibrosis (METAVIR score: F0-F1), while 25 (17%) had intermediate fibrosis (F2). Fifty-six (39%) patients had severe fibrosis (F3-F4) and 27 of them had cirrhosis (F4). The mean values of the GA/HbA1c increased with the progression of the fibrosis (F0-1: 2.83 ± 0.24, F2: 2.85 ± 0.24, F3: 2.92 ± 0.35, F4: 3.14 ± 0.54). There was a significant difference between the F0-F1 vs F4, F2 vs F4, and F3 vs F4 groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The GA/HbA1c ratio was significantly higher in the patients with cirrhosis (F4) than in those without cirrhosis (F0-F3) (3.14 ± 0.54 vs 2.85 ± 0.28, P < 0.0001). The GA/HbA1c ratio was also significantly higher in the patients with severe fibrosis (F3-F4) than in those without severe liver fibrosis (F0-F2) (3.03 ± 0.41 vs 2.84 ± 0.24, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the GA/HbA1c ratio was also significantly higher in the patients with significant fibrosis (F2-F4) than in those without significant liver fibrosis (F0-F1) (2.98 ± 0.41 vs 2.83 ± 0.24, P < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of the increased GA/HbA1c ratio (> 3.0) was as follows: its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of liver cirrhosis (F4) were 59.3% and 70.4%, respectively and its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of severe liver fibrosis (F3-F4) were 50.0% and 74.4%, respectively. With regard to the detection of significant fibrosis (F2-F4), its sensitivity was 44.4% and its specificity was 77.0%. Although even the excellent marker APRI shows low sensitivity (25.9%) for distinguishing patients with or without significant fibrosis, the combination of the APRI and GA/HbA1c ratio increased the sensitivity up to 42.0%, with only a modest decrease in the specificity (from 90.2% to 83.6%). CONCLUSION: The GA/HbA1c ratio increased in line with the histological severity of liver fibrosis, thus suggesting that this ratio is useful as a supportive index of liver fibrosis
Background/Aim: The bioimpedance analysis (BIA) can provide anthropometric data on patients. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical relevance of these automatically obtained values. Patients and Methods: We studied the arm circumference (AC) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) of 197 histologically proven cirrhotic patients. The BIA-based anthropometric data were compared to the manually measured data. In addition, we evaluated whether or not the BIA-based anthropometric data were associated with the prognosis of the patients. Results: The data of %AC and %AMC obtained using the two methods were well correlated (p<0.001) with relatively inconspicuous differences (approximately 6.0% for %AC and 16.0% for %AMC). The data of %AC and %AMC obtained from the BIA method were significantly associated with the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: The BIA-based anthropometric data were associated with the direct measurement data and related to the prognosis of cirrhotic patients.
Background/Aim: A bioimpedance analysis (BIA) can indicate an overhydrated state as the extracellular water/total body water (ECW/TBW) value. This study aimed to assess the clinical significance of this value in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Patients and Methods: A total of 552 CLD patients who received a liver biopsy and underwent anthropometric assessment and BIA-based body composition analysis were enrolled. The association of the ECW/TBW value with the liver fibrosis and nutritional status was assessed. The relationship between the ECW/TBW value and the prognosis of cirrhotic patients (N=209) was also evaluated. Results: The ECW/TBW value increased as liver fibrosis progressed and was also related to decreased muscle mass/sarcopenia. The presence of overhydration was associated with a poor prognosis of cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: An increased ECW/TBW value was associated with progressive liver fibrosis and malnutrition and related to the prognosis of cirrhotic patients.
Background/Aim: This study aimed to assess the clinical significance of measuring the arm skeletal muscle mass in patients with cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: Using body composition data measured with the bioimpedance analysis (BIA) method, the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) values of the arm (arm skeletal muscle mass/height 2) and leg (leg skeletal mass muscle/height 2) were calculated for 353 patients with cirrhosis, and the relationships of these indices to their prognosis were assessed. In addition, overhydration of the upper and lower limbs was compared. Results: Arm SMI was significantly positively associated with the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis (p=0.0002) but leg SMI was not (p=0.0829). The rate of overhydration in the lower limbs was significantly higher than that in the upper limbs (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Arm SMI measured with the BIA method was suggested to be minimally affected by water retention, and might be clinically useful for patients with cirrhosis. Sarcopenia was initially reported as the loss of muscle mass in elderly individuals (1). However, sarcopenia occurs as a complication in several diseases ('secondary sarcopenia') and the presence of disease-related sarcopenia is associated with a poor prognosis (2). Although patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs) often suffer from sarcopenia, these patients have specific disease-related clinical characteristics.
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