After a few years of intense research, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) still demand new secure and cryptographic schemes. On the other hand, the advent of cryptography from pairings has enabled a wide range of novel cryptosystems. In this work we present TinyTate, the first known implementation of pairings for sensor nodes based on the 8-bit/7.3828-MHz ATmega128L microcontroller (e.g., MICA2 and MICAz motes). We then conclude that cryptography from pairings is indeed viable in resource-constrained nodes.
We propose a phenomenological unified model for dark matter and dark energy based on an equation of state parameter w that scales with the arctan of the redshift. The free parameters of the model are three constants: Ω b0 , α and β. Parameter α dictates the transition rate between the matter dominated era and the accelerated expansion period. The ratio β/α gives the redshift of the equivalence between both regimes. Cosmological parameters are fixed by observational data from Primordial Nucleosynthesis (PN), Supernovae of the type Ia (SNIa), Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The calibration of the 138 GRB events is performed using the 580 SNIa of the Union2.1 data set and a new set of 79 high-redshift GRB is obtained. The various sets of data are used in different combinations to constraint the parameters through statistical analysis. The unified model is compared to the ΛCDM model and their differences are emphasized. PACS numbers: 95.35.+d, 95.36.+x, 98.80.Es
We investigate the influence of massive photons on the evolution of the expanding universe. Two particular models for generalized electrodynamics are considered, namely de Broglie-Proca and Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics. We obtain the equation of state (EOS) P = P (ε) for each case using dispersion relations derived from both theories. The EOS are inputted into the Friedmann equations of a homogeneous and isotropic space-time to determine the cosmic scale factor a(t). It is shown that the photon non-null mass does not significantly alter the result a ∝ t 1/2 valid for a massless photon gas; this is true either in de Broglie-Proca's case (where the photon mass m is extremely small) or in Bopp-Podolsky theory (for which m is extremely large).
We study cosmological perturbations in a model of unified dark matter and dark energy with a sharp transition in the late-time universe. The dark sector is described by a dark fluid which evolves from an early stage at redshifts z > zC when it behaves as cold dark matter (CDM) to a late time dark energy (DE) phase (z < zC ) when the equation of state parameter is w = −1 + , with a constant which must be in the range 0 < < 2/3. We show that fluctuations in the dark energy phase suffer from an exponential instability, the mode functions growing both as a function of comoving momentum k and of conformal time η. In order that this exponential instability does not lead to distortions of the energy density power spectrum on scales for which we have good observational results, the redshift zC of transition between the two phases is constrained to be so close to zero that the model is unable to explain the supernova data.
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