In the pathogenesis of cancer anorexia, cytokines play a pivotal role influencing the imbalance of orexigenic and anorexigenic circuits that regulate the homeostatic loop of body-weight regulation, leading to cachexia. Interfering pharmacologically with cytokine expression or neural transduction of cytokine signals can be an effective therapeutic strategy in anorectic patients before they develop cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome.
Background: Incidental gallbladder cancer is defined as a cancer discovered by histological examination after cholecystectomy. It is a potentially curable disease. However, some questions related to their management remain controversial and a defined strategy is associated with better prognosis. Aim: To develop the first evidence-based consensus for management of patients with incidental gallbladder cancer in Brazil. Methods: Sixteen questions were selected, and 36 Brazilian and International members were included to the answer them. The statements were based on current evident literature. The final report was sent to the members of the panel for agreement assessment. Results: Intraoperative evaluation of the specimen, use of retrieval bags and routine histopathology is recommended. Complete preoperative evaluation is necessary and the reoperation should be performed once final staging is available. Evaluation of the cystic duct margin and routine 16b1 lymph node biopsy is recommended. Chemotherapy should be considered and chemoradiation therapy if microscopically positive surgical margins. Port site should be resected exceptionally. Staging laparoscopy before reoperation is recommended, but minimally invasive radical approach only in specialized minimally invasive hepatopancreatobiliary centers. The extent of liver resection is acceptable if R0 resection is achieved. Standard lymph node dissection is required for T2 tumors and above, but common bile duct resection is not recommended routinely. Conclusions: It was possible to prepare safe recommendations as guidance for incidental gallbladder carcinoma, addressing the most frequent topics of everyday work of digestive and general surgeons.
With prompt referral and workup, preemptive kidney transplantation can be performed successfully in a large percentage of renal allograft recipients. Preemptive transplantation avoids unnecessary dialysis and should be emphasized as initial therapy for many patients with end-stage renal disease.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.