Com o surgimento de novos microrganismos resistentes à antimicrobianos e desinfetantes, intensificou-se a busca por métodos alternativos, que sejam eficientes na destruição microbiana e ambientalmente sustentáveis. O ozônio surge nesse cenário pelo seu elevado potencial oxidativo, sendo eficaz na inativação e destruição de bactérias, vírus, fungos e até mesmo em parasitos. É utilizado como desinfetante em diversos ramos industriais, no tratamento de águas residuais e, recentemente, tem sido investigado sua aplicabilidade em medicina veterinária. Atividades experimentais demonstram seu elevado potencial antibacteriano na terapêutica veterinária, como método de desinfecção de ambientes nos diferentes segmentos de produção animal, no tratamento de água na atividade aquícola e, na inocuidade de alimentos, aumentando a segurança de alimentos de origem animal.
The objective of this study was to investigate the sanitary and management characteristics of live-bird resellers as well as identify and undertake an antigenic characterization of Salmonella enterica and its sensitivity to antimicrobials. Structured questionnaires were applied and 627 samples were collected from the cages, consisting 209 samples of excreta, 209 of feed and 209 drinker swabs. These were processed by conventional bacteriology. The obtained isolates were subjected to the susceptibility test and to 12 antimicrobial tests by the disk diffusion method. Of the studied resellers, 91.7% house Gallus gallus domesticus, together with other animal species; sell birds with little zoosanitary documentation; have unsatisfactory active surveillance; and use and sell antimicrobials indiscriminately. The presence of Salmonella enterica was detected in 1.4% (9/627) of the samples analyzed in the cages, with 1.9% (4/209) found in excreta, 0.95% (2/209) in feed and in 1.4% (3/209) in drinker swabs. These were characterized antigenically as Salmonella Heidelberg, Gallinarum, Risen, Ndolo, Saint Paul, Mbandaka and subsp enterica O:6,7. When susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined, 44.4% resistance (4/9) was detected for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 33.3% (3/9) for enrofloxacin, 22.2% (2/9) for ciprofloxacin, ceftiofur and amoxicillin and 11.1% (1/9) for tetracycline and fosfomycin. Salmonella Heidelberg, as well as serovars Gallinarum, Risen, Saint Paul and Mbandaka, showed resistance to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and enrofloxacin were the antimicrobials that showed the least efficacy. Serovars such as Heidelberg, Gallinarum and Mbandaka have multiresistance to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary medicine, implying potential risks to One Health.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), fat, protein, lactose, total dry extract (TDE) and defatted dry extract (DDE) of milk produced in the Pires do Rio – Goiás, Brazil, taking into account the parameters described in Normative Instruction 76, of November 26, 2018. Milk samples were collected from 86 farms with different types of milking, which were analyzed by the Quality Laboratory. Milk from the Center for Food Research of the School of Veterinary and Animal Science of the Federal University of Goiás, in the city of Goiânia. Data were submitted to the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison of median values, adopting a significance level of 5%. Of the properties analyzed, 26 have manual milking and 60 mechanized milking, all parameters were observed in accordance with the minimum and maximum limits defined by IN 76/2018, with the average values of SCC and TBC, 356.441x 10³ cells per mL-1 and 60.047. x10³ colony forming units per mL-1, respectively. From the analyzed parameters it was possible to notice that the milk from the mechanical milking presented higher levels of SCC than the samples from the manual milking, besides the disagreement regarding the protein and lactose values between the different types of milking. Concluding that the milk produced in the Pires do Rio microregion – Goiás, extracted by mechanical and manual milking, is in accordance with the standards established by IN 76/2018.
The objective of this literature review is to highlight the main aspects of the fish's innate immune system, demonstrating the need for new alternatives for disease control, respecting the premise of sustainability, with the use of biologically active immunostimulants. In fish there is no presence of myeloid tissues or organs, the components of your immune system are classified only as lymphoids, and innate immunity is considered the organism's first line of defense against the pathogen. Thus, the use of food additives and immunostimulants help to improve the natural immune system of these animals. They can be synthetic, chemical or biological substances that induce the activation or increase of components of the immune system, thus providing early defense against diseases, and can be used as preventive treatment. Vegetable compounds, essential oils and bioactive plant strata have great potential, as they have proven antimicrobial and antiparasitic functions. Among them, garlic is considered one of the most effective, as it acts as a growth promoter, appetite stimulator, antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune stimulant, it also helps with hematological parameters and increases the well-being of fish, as well as the ability to improve meat quality and extend shelf life.
As vacinas são ferramentas que objetivam proteger um indivíduo ou população de uma determinada doença. Elas simulam uma infecção natural e assim conseguem estimular o sistema imune. Elas podem ser divididas em vivas atenuadas e inativadas, ambas sendo compostas basicamente por antígenos e excipientes, no qual estão contidos os adjuvantes. Esses componentes podem causar reações adversas indesejáveis locais ou sistêmicas, que variam de leve a severa de acordo com os componentes vacinais ou de acordo com a sensibilidade do animal ou pessoa vacinada. O objetivo dessa revisão de literatura é mostrar os mecanismos de funcionamento de vacinas, como reage o sistema imunológico, porque ocorrem as reações vacinais adversas e quais são os principais tipos de reações adversas.
Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is a wild mammal distributed in Central and South America; nowadays, it is classified as an endangered species. Research about the macroscopic and histomorphological aspects of its respiratory tract is scarce, and, sometimes, it limits the treatment provided to sick animals and impairs species preservation. Thus, the present study aims to describe the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of its lower respiratory tract, including trachea and lungs. To do so, 12 adult giant anteaters from “Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de Goiânia” (CETAS-GO), Goiás State, Brazil, were used in the research after natural death or euthanasia. Three of these animals were used for macroscopic assessments; they were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and dissected. Trachea and lung tissue samples were collected from nine animals right after death and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histomorphological analysis; they were processed, embedded in paraffin, and inked with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Masson’s trichrome. The macroscopic analysis showed that the trachea in this species is proportionally short and presents from 19 to 27 tracheal cartilages. The right lung presents four lobes and the left one, two. The microscopic analysis evidenced respiratory epithelium of the ciliated cylindrical pseudostratified type, without evident goblet cells in the mucosa layer of the trachea and bronchi. The pulmonary visceral pleura is thick, similar to other large domestic mammals - complete septa extend from the pulmonary visceral pleura. In conclusion, the macroscopy and histomorphology of giant anteater’s lower respiratory tract, represented by trachea and lungs, are similar to that of other domestic and wild mammals. Pulmonary histomorphology is mainly similar to that of pigs and ruminants: it has thick visceral pleura that emits complete septa of conjunctive tissue, which enable lobular parenchymal architecture.
First described in 1817, prostate cancer is considered a complex neoplastic entity, and one of the main causes of death in men in the western world. In dogs, prostatic carcinoma (PC) exhibits undifferentiated morphology with different phenotypes, is hormonally independent of aggressive character, and has high rates of metastasis to different organs. Although in humans, the risk factors for tumor development are known, in dogs, this scenario is still unclear, especially regarding castration. Therefore, with the advent of molecular biology, studies were and are carried out with the aim of identifying the main molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of canine PC, aiming to identify potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted treatment. However, there are extensive gaps to be filled, especially when considering the dog as experimental model for the study of this neoplasm in humans. Thus, due to the complexity of the subject, the objective of this review is to present the main pathobiological aspects of canine PC from a comparative point of view to the same neoplasm in the human species, addressing the historical context and current understanding in the scientific field.
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan of the species Leishmania infantum. The spleen and lymph nodes undergo morphological changes during CanL. This research aimed to perform an anatomopathological and immunohistochemical study of these organs in dogs reactive to leishmaniasis in the Dual-path Platform chromatographic immunoassay (DPP®) and Enzyme Immunoabsorption Assay (ELISA). Twenty-seven dogs were evaluated for anatomopathological examination with 92.6% showing changes at gross evaluation, specially splenomegaly and lymphadenomegaly. All dogs showed changes in the spleen unrelated to the parasitic load, with granulomatous splenitis being the most severe change. Diffuse cortical and paracortical hyperplasia, and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the medullary cords were observed in the lymph node. Amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. were found in the spleen and lymph node at histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations, with good agreement between these evaluations (k = 0.55, p = 0.00124), but no difference was observed in the parasitic intensity of these organs at immunohistochemistry (p = 0.23). It was concluded that spleen and lymph node from dogs reactive to leishmaniasis on the DPP® and ELISA tests show histomorphological changes resulting from the disease, independent to the parasitic load, as well as these organs show similar parasitic load at immunohistochemical test.
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