Tauopathies are a group of neurological disorders characterized by the presence of intraneuronal hyperphosphorylated and filamentous tau. Mutations in the tau gene have been found in kindred with tauopathy. The expression of the human tau mutant in transgenic mice induced neurodegeneration, indicating that tau plays a central pathological role. However, the molecular mechanism leading to tau-mediated neurodegeneration is poorly understood. To gain insights into the role that tau plays in neurodegeneration, human tau proteins were immunoprecipitated from brain lysates of the tauopathy mouse model JNPL3, which develops neurodegeneration in age-dependent manner. In the present work, a novel EF-hand domain-containing protein was found associated with tau proteins in brain lysate of 12-month-old JNPL3 mice. The association between tau proteins and the novel identified protein appears to be induced by the neurodegeneration process as these two proteins were not found associated in young JNPL3 mice. Consistently, the novel protein co-purified with the pathological sarkosyl insoluble tau in terminally ill JNPL3 mice. Calcium-binding assays demonstrated that this protein binds calcium effectively. Finally, the association between tau and the novel calcium-binding protein is conserved in human and enriched in Alzheimer's disease brain. Taken together, the identification of a novel calcium-binding protein associated with tau protein in terminally ill tauopathy mouse model and its confirmation in human brain lysate suggests that this association may play an important physiological and/or pathological role.
A 15-year experiment in a clayey Red-Yellow Podzolic in the tropical highlands of Viçosa, Brazil, was studied in 2000, aiming to evaluate the impact of different management systems (no tillage, disk plowing, heavy scratcher + disk plowing, and heavy scratched) on the total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and several organic carbon pools. A natural forest, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as reference. The greatest TOC and TN as well as microbial biomass C (CMB), light fraction C (CFL), and labile organic carbon (CL) stocks were observed in the Atlantic Forest, compared with all other systems. The long-term cultivation (±70 years) of this area, prior to the installation of the experiment, has led to soil degradation, slowing the C recovery. No tillage had the higher C and N stocks and greater CL pool at the surface (0–10 cm), indicating improvement in soil nutrient status, although none of the systems presented potential to sequester C-CO2. Sustainable tropical agricultural systems should involve high residue input and conservative soil management in order to act as a C-CO2 sink. The C stocks in the CMB, CFL, and CL compartments were more reduced in relation to the natural vegetation with higher intensity management than the TOC stocks. This result indicates that these C compartments are more sensitive to changes in the soil management.
SUMMARYThe use of green manure may contribute to reduce soil erosion and increase the soil organic matter content and N availability in coffee plantations in the Zona da Mata, State of Minas Gerais, in Southeastern Brazil. The potential of four legumes (A. pintoi, C. mucunoides, S. aterrimum and S. guianensis) to produce above-ground biomass, accumulate nutrients and mineralize N was studied in two coffee plantations of subsistence farmers under different climate conditions. The biomass production of C. mucunoides was influenced by the shade of the coffee plantation. C. mucunoides tended to mineralize more N than the other legumes due to the low polyphenol content and polyphenol/N ratio. In the first year, the crop establishment of A. pintoi in the area took longer than of the other legumes, resulting in lower biomass production and N 2 fixation. In the long term, cellulose was the main factor controlling N mineralization. The biochemical characteristics, nutrient accumulation and biomass production of the legumes were greatly influenced by the altitude and position of the area relative to the sun.
SUMMARYLeguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis) in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg -1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg -1 . The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol)/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD), the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA), there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d -1 . Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d -1 ). Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants. RESUMO: DECOMPOSIÇÃO E LIBERAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTS DE LEGUMINOSAS HERBÁCEAS EM CAFEZAIS SOB SISTEMAS AGROFLORESTAIS
Resumo -O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da adubação orgânica e mineral sobre a estabilidade de agregados e a distribuição de C, N e P, em classes de agregados de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Os tratamentos consistiram de 0 e 40 m 3 ha -1 por ano de adubação orgânica e de 0, 250 e 500 kg ha -1 de adubação mineral N-P-K da fórmula 4-14-8. Uma área sob floresta atlântica foi utilizada como referência. Amostras foram coletadas nas camadas de 0-10 e 10-20 cm. Houve predomínio da classe de agregados entre 4 e 2 mm, que correspondeu a 39,7% do total de agregados separados por via seca no tratamento com composto orgânico. Os teores de C orgânico total para adubação orgânica foram 17,5 e 36,7% maiores para as classes 4-2 e 0,105-0,25 mm. A adubação orgânica contribuiu para teores de N e P totais de 43 e 38,7% (0-10 cm) e 35,4 e 36,8% (10-20 cm), maiores que os dos tratamentos sem adubo orgânico. A relação carbono/nitrogênio se manteve constante entre as classes de agregados de um mesmo tratamento, enquanto a de carbono/fósforo reduziu com o uso de adubo orgânico ou mineral, em relação à mata nativa. Os índices de estabilidade de agregados se correlacionaram positivamente aos teores de carbono orgânico total da classe 4-2 mm.Termos para indexação: agregação, estrutura do solo, matéria orgânica, sistema de manejo. Aggregate stability and carbon and nutrients distribution in an Acrisol under organic and mineral fertilizationAbstract -The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of mineral and organic fertilization on the soilwater aggregate stability and on the distribution of C, N and P in different classes of aggregates in an Acrisol. The treatments were 0 and 40 m 3 ha -1 per year of organic fertilizer and 0, 250 and 500 kg ha -1 of mineral fertilizer N-P-K of the formula 4-14-8. An area under Atlantic forest was used as reference. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. The distribution of aggregates showed the highest values from 4 to 2 mm. In the organic fertilizer treatment, the aggregates 4-2 mm corresponded to 39.7% of the total on the soil. For the aggregates 4-2 and 0.105-0.25 mm, the total organic carbon contents were 17.5 and 36.7% higher in the organic fertilizer treatments. The organic fertilization contributed to values of N and P of 43 and 38.7% (0-10 cm) and 35.4 and 36.8% (10-20 cm), which were higher than the treatments without organic fertilizer. The carbon/nitrogen ratio did not vary among the aggregate classes in the same treatment. However, the carbon/ phosphorus ratio was reduced with the use of organic and mineral fertilizer. The indexes of aggregates stability were positively correlated with the content of total organic carbon in the 4-2 mm.Index terms: aggregation, soil structure, organic matter, management system. IntroduçãoA busca por sistemas conservacionistas, que minimizem as emissões de gases do efeito estufa e que contribuam para a manutenção das qualidades física e química do solo, têm relacionado a matéria orgânica (MO) como importante índice na aval...
In temperate regions, cultivation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. has recently received considerable attention because it is a fast-growing species for biomass and bioenergy production, while acting as a potential carbon (C) sink to counterbalance carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and an alternative to agricultural crops on marginal sites. The objective of our work was to compare total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and organic C fractions in postlignite mining soils under different development stages of R. pseudoacacia. Soil samples from three different depths (0-3, 3-10 and 10-30 cm) were taken in plantations 2, 3, 4, and 14 years old (R2, R3, R4, and R14, respectively). The TOC and TN contents increased with increasing tree age in all layers (P < 0.01). In the top 30 cm, TOC and TN stocks ranged from 11.7 to 59.8 Mg C ha −1 and from 0.30 to 2.61 Mg N ha −1 at R2 and R14, respectively. The rate of C sequestration was calculated to be 4.0 Mg C ha −1 year −1 . Microbial biomass C and N were strongly correlated to TOC (r 2 = 0.96 -0.81; P < 0.001) and TN contents (r 2 = 0.92 -0.91; P < 0.001). The light fraction C (C LF ) accounted for 15-30% and the heavy fraction C for 70% of TOC in all layers. In the 0-to 3-cm layer, C LF increased by 0.5 g kg −1 year −1 . The results indicate that plantations of R. pseudoacacia are an attractive alternative to increase soil C contents in reclaimed lignite mining soils. In the short term, microbial biomass C and light fraction C are sensitive and provide an appropriate measure to assess soil C changes caused by cultivation of R. pseudoacacia.
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