Snakebite is a neglected disease and serious health problem in Brazil, with most bites being caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops. Although serum therapy is the primary treatment for systemic envenomation, it is generally ineffective in neutralizing the local effects of these venoms. In this work, we examined the ability of 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (TM), an isoflavone from Dipteryx alata, to neutralize the neurotoxicity (in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations) and myotoxicity (assessed by light microscopy) of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro. The toxicity of TM was assessed using the Salmonella microsome assay (Ames test). Incubation with TM alone (200 μg/mL) did not alter the muscle twitch tension whereas incubation with venom (40 μg/mL) caused irreversible paralysis. Preincubation of TM (200 μg/mL) with venom attenuated the venom-induced neuromuscular blockade by 84% ± 5% (mean ± SEM; n = 4). The neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), the major myotoxic PLA 2 of this venom, was also attenuated by TM. Histological analysis of diaphragm muscle incubated with TM showed that most fibers were preserved (only 9.2% ± 1.7% were damaged; n = 4) compared to venom alone (50.3% ± 5.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3), and preincubation of TM with venom significantly attenuated the venom-induced damage (only 17% ± 3.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3; p < 0.05 compared to venom alone). TM showed no mutagenicity in the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA98 and TA97a with (+S9) and without (−S9) metabolic activation. These findings indicate that TM is a potentially useful compound for antagonizing the neuromuscular effects (neurotoxicity and myotoxicity) of B. jararacussu venom.
Nanoparticle-conjugated venom-toxins of venomous animals and its therapeutic efficacy against emerging or neglecting diseases is a promising strategy. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs ∼50 nm, 0.081 mg mL) were studied against the neuromuscular blockade, myotoxic effects induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom (60 µg mL) and also against prokaryotic cells. The neurotoxicity was evaluated on ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm using traditional myographic technique, able to obtain functional contractile responses and to check the neurotransmission. The myotoxicity on mammalian cells was evaluated in muscles resulting from pharmacological assays using routine histological techniques and light microscopy. The toxicity to prokaryotic cells was evaluated on Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without metabolic activation. The in vitro preincubation model between AgNPs and venom was enough to abolish toxic effects of B. jararacussu venom, but mammalian cells were highly sensitive to AgNPs more than prokaryotic cells, by acting as dose-independently and dose-dependently parameters, respectively. These results allowed us to conclude that AgNPs showed promising activity as antivenom agent but for its safer use, the toxicity should be evaluated on experimental animals.
Many natural products influence neurotransmission and are used clinically. In particular, facilitatory agents can enhance neurotransmission and are potentially useful for treating neuromuscular diseases in which muscular weakness is the major symptom. In this work, we investigated the facilitatory effect of apolar to polar fractions of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (guaçatonga) on contractility in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) and chick biventer cervicis (BC) neuromuscular preparations exposed to indirect (via the nerve; 3 V stimuli) and direct (30 V stimuli) muscle stimulation in the absence and presence of pharmacological antagonists. Methanolic and ethyl acetate fractions, but not hexane or dichloromethane fractions, exerted a facilitatory effect on PND (indirect stimulation). The methanolic fraction was chosen for further assays to assess the involvement of: 1) presynaptic sites (axons or nerve terminals), 2) postsynaptic sites (cholinergic receptors, sarcolemma or T-tubules), and 3) the synaptic cleft (acetylcholinesterase enzyme). In preparations treated with d-tubocurarine, the methanolic fraction did not cause facilitation in response to direct stimuli; this fraction was also unable to reverse dantrolene-induced blockade (indirect stimulation). In curarized preparations, the methanolic fraction either restored neuromuscular transmission (mimicking the effect of neostigmine) or failed to cause any recovery of neurotransmission. In the presence of 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), the methanolic fraction decreased twitch amplitude, whereas at a high frequency of stimulation (40 Hz) there was an increase in tetanic tension. In BC preparations, the methanolic fraction did not affect contractures to exogenous acetylcholine or potassium chloride. Incubation with atropine showed there was certain modulation by prejunctional nicotinic receptors, whereas treatment with nifedipine showed that the neurofacilitation required the entry of extracellular calcium. Tetrodotoxin did not prevent the facilitatory effect of 3,4-DAP or neostigmine, but antagonized the response to the methanolic fraction. These findings indicate that neuronal sodium channels have an important role in the facilitatory response to the methanolic fraction, with extracellular calcium entry via calcium channels modulating this neurofacilitation. Possible modulation of prejunctional cholinoceptors was not excluded, particularly in view of certain antagonism by the methanolic fraction at muscarinic receptors. Since facilitation by the methanolic fraction involved enhanced acetylcholine release, use of this fraction could be potentially beneficial in neuromuscular diseases and in the reversal of residual paralysis in the post-operative period or after local anaesthesia.
Phenolic compounds from Dipteryx alata Vogel were assayed against the in vitro neurotoxic effect induced by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom. Mutagenicity was assessed by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102, in experiments with and without metabolic activation. Anti-bothropic activity was obtained by using mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation and myographic technique. Control experiments with physiological Tyrode solution were used for keeping the PND preparations alive (n = 4). Concentrations of phenolic compounds were as follow: protocatechuic and vanillic acids (200 µg/mL, n = 4), vanillin (50 µg/mL, n = 4). These compounds were used alone or pre-incubated with the venom (40 µg/mL), 30 min prior the addition to the organ bath (n = 4). Phenolic compounds significantly inhibited the neuromuscular blockade of Bjssu in the following order of potency: vanillic acid > protocatechuic = vanillin. Vanillic acid added 10 min after the Bjssu venom was also able to avoid the venomblockade evolution. The mutagenicity assay indicated that all phytochemicals were unable to increase the number of revertants, demonstrating the absence of mutagenic activity. This study * Corresponding author. E. H. Yoshida et al.2 demonstrated both the safety and therapeutical potential of the three phenolic compounds as novel complementary anti-bothropic agents.
F55-6 apparently caused neurofacilitation by the same mechanism (presynaptic action) as the methanolic fraction since its activity was also inhibited in tetrodotoxin-pretreated preparations.
ObjectiveTo examine the efficiency of hemoperfusion in removing South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom from rats compared with neutralization by antivenom.DesignAn exploratory experimental investigation in rats involving the injection of snake venom with or without subsequent hemoperfusion or antivenom administration.SettingBasic animal research laboratory in a private university.AnimalsNormal, healthy male Wistar rats (0.29‐0.40 kg, 3‐6 months old) from a commercial breeder.InterventionsFour experimental groups of randomly allocated rats (n = 3/group) were studied: Group 1: rats were injected with a single dose of venom (5 mg/kg, IM, in the right thigh) with no other treatment; blood samples were collected minutes before death to determine leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte counts; Group 2 (Control): rats underwent hemoperfusion alone for 60 min using a hemoperfusion cartridge designed for protein adsorption (by granulated charcoal) and protein precipitation (by tannic acid); Group 3 (Venom + antivenom): rats were injected with venom (5 mg/kg, IM) and, 10 min later, were treated with antivenom at the venom:antivenom ratio recommended by the manufacturer; Group 4 (Venom + hemoperfusion): Rats were injected with venom (5 mg/kg, IM) and, 10 min later, were hemoperfused for 60 min. In groups 2‐4, blood samples were collected for leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte counts 24 h after venom.Measurements and Main ResultsRats injected with venom alone (Group 1) developed signs of neurotoxicity and ataxia and died in 9.0 ± 0.43 h but showed no changes in leukocyte or erythrocyte counts. In contrast, there were no deaths in groups 2‐4. The lack of deaths in Groups 3 and 4 indicated that antivenom and hemoperfusion, respectively, protected against the lethal effects of the venom.ConclusionsHemoperfusion with a double‐action hemoperfusion cartridge capable of protein adsorption and precipitation protected rats against C. d. terrificus venom.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.