The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems.
To evaluate the efficacy of a functional microarray of microneedles (MNs) plus topical tranexamic acid (TA) for melasma in middle-aged women in China.Thirty female subjects with melasma were enrolled in this study. The left or right side of the face was chosen randomly to be pretreated with a functional microarray of MNs, followed by topical 0.5% TA solution once per week for 12 weeks. The other half-face was the control, treated with a sham device plus topical 0.5% TA solution. At baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12 of treatment, clinical (photographic) evaluations and parameters determined by Visia were recorded. At baseline and week 12, patient satisfaction scores and the biophysical parameters measured by Mexameter were also recorded. Side effects were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the 12 weeks.In total, 28 women (93.3%) completed the study. The brown spots’ scores measured by Visia were significantly lower on the combined therapy side than on the control side at 12 weeks after starting treatment; there was no significant difference between sides at 4 or 8 weeks. After 12 weeks, melanin index (MI) decreased significantly in both 2 groups, and the MI was significantly less on the combined side at week 12. Transepidermal water loss, roughness, skin hydration, skin elasticity, and erythema index showed no significant differences between 2 sides at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment. Physicians’ evaluations of photographs showed better results at week 12 with combined therapy: >25% improvement was observed in the MNs plus TA side in 25 patients, and in the TA side in only 10 patients. Subjective satisfaction scores on both sides increased significantly. The participants were more satisfied with the results of the combined therapy side than the control side. No obvious adverse reactions were observed throughout the study.Combined therapy with a functional microarray of MNs and topical TA solution is a promising treatment for melasma.
Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrated that oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290), a probiotic strain derived from a Japanese traditional pickle, could protect against influenza virus (IFV) infection in mice. Our results demonstrated that continual intake of KB290 for 14 days prior to IFV infection alleviated clinical symptoms such as loss of body weight and deterioration in observational physical conditions induced by the infection. The beneficial effects of KB290 consumption may have been elicited by the long-lasting enhancement of interferon-a production and the augmentation of IFV-specific immunoglobulin A production. AbstractLactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290), isolated from a traditional Japanese pickle 'Suguki', has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. We investigated whether oral administration of KB290 has protective effects against influenza virus (IFV) infection in mice. After 14 days of administration of lyophilized KB290 suspended in phosphate-buffered saline by oral gavage, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with 2 9 MLD 50 (50% mouse lethal dose) of IFV A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Prophylactically administered KB290 significantly alleviated the loss of body weight and the deterioration in observational physical conditions induced by the infection. In addition, 7 days after infection, the levels of IFV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly increased in mice fed KB290 compared with controls. Moreover, there was a significant elevation of serum interferon (IFN)-a in KB290 group mice, even at three and 7 days after infection, despite the administration of KB290 being stopped before IFV infection. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of KB290 before infection could alleviate IFV-induced clinical symptoms. Alleviation of clinical symptoms by KB290 consumption may have been induced by long-lasting enhancement of IFN-a production and the augmentation of IFV-specific IgA production.
In this paper, we introduce a unique new plant breeding decision support software tool DeltaGen, implemented in R and its package Shiny. DeltaGen provides plant breeders with a single integrated solution for experimental design generation, data quality control, statistical and quantitative genetic analyses, breeding strategy evaluation, simulation, and cost analysis, pattern analysis, index selection, and underlying basic theory on quantitative genetics. Key analysis procedures in DeltaGen were demonstrated using three datasets generated from forage breeding trials in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Analyses of the perennial ryegrass seasonal growth data in Case Study 1 was based on residual maximum likelihood analysis and pattern analysis. A graphical summary of the performance of entries across locations was generated, and entries with specific and broad adaptation were identified. The quantitative genetic analysis and breeding method simulation procedures applied to the perennial ryegrass half‐sib (HS) family data in Case Study 2 enabled estimation of quantitative genetic parameters, prediction of genetic gain, and calculation of costs per selection cycle. These results enabled comparison of three breeding methods, which also included genomic selection, and their simulation. Data from Case Study 3 were analyzed to investigate a multivariate approach to identify HS families of switchgrass with breeding values that would enable an increase in biomass dry matter yield (DMY) and cell wall ethanol (CWE) and a decrease in Klason lignin (KL). The Smith–Hazel index developed enabled identification of HS families with genetic worth for increasing DMY and CWE and reducing KL, in contrast with individual trait selection. Analysis of the datasets in all three case studies provides a snapshot of the key analyses available within DeltaGen. This software tool could also be used as a teaching resource in plant breeding courses. DeltaGen is available as freeware at http://agrubuntu.cloudapp.net/PlantBreedingTool/
Our limited understanding of terrestrial ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 is a major constraint on predicting the impacts of climate change. A change in botanical composition has been identified as a key factor in the CO2 response with profound implications for ecosystem services such as plant production and soil carbon storage. In temperate grasslands, there is a strong consensus that elevated CO2 will result in a greater physiological stimulus to growth in legumes and to a lesser extent forbs, compared with C3 grasses, and the presumption this will lead in turn to a greater proportion of these functional groups in the plant community. However, this view is based on data mainly collected in experiments of three or less years in duration and not in experiments where defoliation has been by grazing animals. Grazing is, however, the most common management of grasslands and known in itself to influence botanical composition. In a long-term Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment in a temperate grassland managed with grazing animals (sheep), we found the response to elevated CO2 in plant community composition in the first 5 years was consistent with the expectation of increased proportions of legumes and forbs. However, in the longer term, these differences diminished so that the proportions of grasses, legumes and forbs were the same under both ambient and elevated CO2 . Analysis of vegetation before and after each grazing event showed there was a sustained disproportionately greater removal ('apparent selection') of legumes and forbs by the grazing animals. This bias in removal was greater under elevated CO2 than ambient CO2 . This is consistent with sustained faster growth rates of legumes and forbs under elevated CO2 being countered by selective defoliation, and so leading to little difference in community composition.
A series of experiments was conducted in New Zealand to evaluate the potential of forage brassicas for mitigation of enteric methane emissions. Experiments involved sheep and cattle fed winter and summer varieties of brassica forage crops. In the sheep-feeding trials, it was demonstrated that several species of forage brassicas can result, to a varying degree, in a lower methane yield (g methane per kg of DM intake) than does ryegrass pasture. Pure forage rape fed as a winter crop resulted in 37% lower methane yields than did pasture. Increasing the proportion of forage rape in the diet of sheep fed pasture linearly decreased methane yield. Feeding forage rape to cattle also resulted in 44% lower methane yield than did feeding pasture. In conclusion, reductions in methane emission are achievable by feeding forage brassicas, especially winter forage rape, to sheep and cattle. Investigating other aspects of these crops is warranted to establish their value as a viable mitigation tool in pastoral farming.
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