The present study aimed to determine the growth and activity of proteolytic digestive enzymes of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed by replacing increased fish meal in the diet by either phosphorylated protein concentrate or pumpkin seed meal (PPCPS). Five experimental diets were formulated with levels: 0 (control), 25 (25% pumpkin seed meal (PSM) and 25% PPCPS) and 50% (50% PSM and 50% PPCPS). Crude protein from fish meal was replaced either by PSM or PPCPS crude protein. Each diet was fed to four replicate groups of silver catfish (initial weight 24 ± 0.46 g) to apparent satiation three times a day. Four orthogonal contrasts were applied to the biological assay data. When compared to other diets, the replacement of fish meal by either 25% or 50% of PPCPS in the diet of juvenile catfish does not change growth rates and promotes improvement in feed conversion. The use of PSM as a protein ingredient is not recommended due to its negative influence on fish growth. Thus, it can be concluded that the nutritional value of PSM can be improved by the simple chemical process of phosphorylation, yielding a protein concentrate (PPCPS) that may be used as a promising alternative ingredient.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary fibre concentrates (DFC: Mucilage = MG; pectin = PN or β-glucan+mannan = βg+M), on biochemical parameters, stress and immune response and skin mucus of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). The fish (7.16 ± 0.06 g) were fed with Control diet (0 g/kg of DFC); diet supplemented with 5 g/kg of commercial prebiotic (CP 5) or diets supplemented with 5 or 10 g/kg of MG; PN or βg+M. After 8 weeks of the feeding trials, biochemical parameters (cholesterol, glucose, albumin and total protein), cortisol, immunoglobulin IgM and mucoproteins of skin mucus were assessed. Results demonstrated that supplementation with PN increased cholesterol levels (p<.05). After application of the stressor, most fish, except those in the PN and 10 g/kg MG groups, showed significant increases (p<.05) in cholesterol, glucose and albumin levels. The jundiás showed no difference in cortisol levels after application of the stressor (p>.05). IgM levels were significantly high in fish supplemented with DFC (p<.05). However, the concentration of mucoproteins in skin mucus was not influenced in the different treatments (p>.05). The results showed that supplementation with DFC promoted beneficial effects on the metabolism of jundiá.
K E Y W O R D Sfibre dietary, mucilage, pectin, prebiotics, Rhamdia quelen, β-glucan+mannan
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of Dietary Fiber Concentrates (DFCs) on growth performance, gut morphology, and hepatic metabolic intermediates in jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). At the end of the trial, growth and intestinal villus height was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in fish fed diets supplemented with DFCs. However, the animals in commercial prebiotic group showed higher values for this variable compared to the other treatments. Regarding the thickness of the epithelium bowel, it was greater in the Control group compared to animals supplemented with β-glucan+mannan. Likewise, treatment with commercial prebiotic showed higher values of epithelium bowel compared to the DFCs. The fish supplemented with DFCs, had higher glycogen storage compared to the control group. These results indicate that DFCs can be considered as a beneficial dietary supplement for improving growth performance, gut morphology, and hepatic metabolic intermediates of jundiá.
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of carbohydrates with different molecular sizes on growth performance, feed utilization and composition, activity of digestive enzymes, plasma and hepatic metabolites of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Triplicate groups of jundiá (4.08 ± 0.005 g) were stocked in 12 tanks with stocking density of 25 individuals per tank and fed for 40 days with four isonitrogenous diets (37%) and isocaloric diets (3,200 kcal/kg) containing fructose (FRU), sucrose (SUC), maltodextrin (MALDEX) or corn starch (CS). The results showed no significant differences for growth variables and digestive enzymes. Fish whose diet received maltodextrin showed higher levels of deposited body fat and hepatosomatic index. Moreover, the above‐mentioned treatment resulted in lower concentrations of glucose and cholesterol in the plasma of jundiá, higher levels of triglycerides, and lower reserves of glucose and liver glycogen. However, fish fed the starch‐based diet presented higher moisture content, crude protein deposition, and body protein retention coefficient. In that same treatment, the jundiá presented higher levels of plasma glucose and liver protein. In conclusion, the efficiency of using digestible carbohydrates in iso‐nutritional diets for jundiá depends on the size of their molecular structure. The corn starch was the best dietary carbohydrate source for jundiá, based on feed utilization and composition and greater synchronicity between energy utilization and protein synthesis.
The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic parameters of silver catfish fed with protein concentrates of sunflower meal (SMPC) and crambe meal (CrMPC). The study evaluated two levels of substitution, where 25 or 50% of animal protein was replaced with plant-based protein. A total of 300 silver catfish (14 ± 0.26 g) were used in five treatments and three replications, in fifteen 280-liter experimental units. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means of the control diet was compared to the remaining treatments by Dunnett's test at 5% significance level. At the end of the trial, no differences were observed for the variables final weight and daily weight gain. However, minor feed conversion was observed in the groups Control and SMPC-25%. Metabolic parameters were analyzed in the plasma and liver, where no significant differences were found for any of the blood parameters analyzed. In the analyzed liver parameters (ammonia, protein, amino acids and ALAT), the liver protein content was lower in fish consuming SMPC-50%, CrMPC-50% and 25% CrMPC diets. The amino acids content was higher in fish receiving the SMPC-25% diet. It can be concluded that sunflower meal protein concentrate is better utilized by fish and more efficient metabolically than crambe meal. This study demonstrated that a newly developed protein concentrate SMPC and CrMPC can effectively replace 25% and 50% the animal protein in a diet free of FM.
Este estudo avaliou a substituição parcial de farinhas de origem animal pelo farelo de tungue como fonte proteica no arraçoamento de carpa húngara. Os tratamentos compreenderam a inclusão de farelo de tungue in naturaou detoxificado (obtido após aplicação de tratamento químico ao farelo), e o tratamento referência consistiu de base proteica composta por farinha de carne e ossos suína e farinha de peixe. O período de alimentação foi de 63 dias. No decorrer de 30 dias experimentais não foi observada diferença em indicadores de crescimento entre os animais que consumiram as rações controle e com farelo de tungue tratado quimicamente, porém o consumo da ração com farelo de tungue in natura provocou redução no desempenho até o final do período experimental. Após 63 dias de arraçoamento, alguns indicadores de crescimento mostraram-se inferiores também para o tratamento que continha farelo de tungue tratado em relação ao controle. A análise bioquímica no plasma e no fígado revelou aumento de triglicerídeos, glicogênio, glicose e a utilização de outras fontes, possivelmente aminoácidos, como precursores energéticos na produção de energia quando os animais consumiram a dieta com farelo de tungue in natura em relação às demais, o que refletiu na menor concentração de proteína e na maior deposição de gordura na carcaça. Em relação à atividade de enzimas digestivas, tripsina apresentou atividade aumentada no tratamento com farelo de tungue in natura e protease ácida, quimotripsina, amilase e lipase não foram alteradas em nenhum dos tratamentos avaliados.
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