Abstract:The wide utilization of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is obstructed by the severely limited energy constraints of the individual sensor nodes. This is the reason why a large part of the research in WSNs focuses on the development of energy efficient routing protocols. In this paper, a new protocol called Equalized Cluster Head Election Routing Protocol (ECHERP), which pursues energy conservation through balanced clustering, is proposed. ECHERP models the network as a linear system and, using the Gaussian elimination algorithm, calculates the combinations of nodes that can be chosen as cluster heads in order to extend the network lifetime. The performance evaluation of ECHERP is carried out through simulation tests, which evince the effectiveness of this protocol in terms of network energy efficiency when compared against other well-known protocols.
The expansion of new technologies is expected to offer economic growth in the wired and wireless technological networking environment, while at the same time, it will offer a wide variety of services and give the possibility for utilizing technologies for the benefit of many subscribers. The Pricing Schemes are designed to offer profitable business to the Wireless Service Providers (WSPs), as well as, to create favorable services for the mobile subscribers and eventually to get charged according to their services usage. In this paper, the Pricing Schemes are classified, based on their ability to adapt to the needs of the WSPs and their subscribers during the entire service period, into Static-based Pricing and Dynamic-based Pricing Schemes. The Pricing Schemes are also analyzed in detail and are further classified according to the factors involved in the price calculation of a service, i.e. the Service Level Agreement (SLA), the subscription type, the negotiation capabilities between WSPs and their subscribers, the network capacity, the available bandwidth and frequency spectrum, the network hops, and the Base Stations (BSs). The affected elements by the pricing network are also discussed, together with the performance evaluation of the presented pricing schemes.
The power awareness issue is the primary concern within the domain of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Most power dissipation ocurrs during communication, thus routing protocols in WSNs mainly aim at power conservation. Moreover, a routing protocol should be scalable, so that its effectiveness does not degrade as the network size increases. In response to these issues, this work describes the development of an efficient routing protocol, named SHPER (Scaling Hierarchical Power Efficient Routing).
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