RESUMO -A espécie amazônica Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb) apresenta rápidos incrementos em altura e diâmetro em poucos anos de cultivo e desenvolve uma madeira com pequena quantidade de nós e defeitos, característica fundamental na sua utilização para fins estruturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as propriedades de resistência e rigidez de peças da madeira Paricá em dimensões estruturais, de acordo com a norma ABNT NBR 7190: 2011, bem como realizar a classificação visual das peças para determinação de defeitos como: nós, inclinação de fibras, empenamentos, rachas e fendas. Conclui-se que a madeira de Paricá é classificada como classe C 20 das dicotiledôneas e possui baixa densidade, boa resistência à compressão paralela, grande potencial de utilização na construção civil quando comparada com outras espécies e, em relação à classificação visual, poucos nós, grã direita e poucos empenamentos e distorções.Palavras-chave: Caracterização completa; Estruturas de madeira; Madeira. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AMAZONIAN WOOD SPECIE PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum HERB) IN MEMBERS
RESUMO -O conhecimento do comportamento da madeira mediante ações de curta duração contribui para um projeto estrutural mais seguro, entretanto não sendo a tenacidade parte integrante das propriedades mecânicas comumente investigadas na caracterização deste material. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar, com o uso de modelos de regressões polinomial linear, quadrática e cúbica, a possibilidade da estimativa da tenacidade com o conhecimento da densidade aparente de seis espécies de madeira (Angico, Eucalipto, Jatobá, Paricá, Pinus e Teca). Os resultados dos modelos de regressão evidenciaram a significância e representatividade de todos os ajustes investigados, consistindo o polinomial cúbico o mais eficiente na estimativa da tenacidade da madeira.Palavras-chave: Tenacidade; Modelos de regressão; Densidade aparente. WOODEN TOUGHNESS AS FUNCTION OF THE APPARENT DENSITYABSTRACT -The knowledge on the behavior of wood in situations of short load contributes to the development of a safer structural design. However, toughness is not part of the mechanical properties commonly investigated in the characterization of this material. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate, the possibility to estimate the toughness with the knowledge of the apparent density of 6 Brazilian tropical wooden species (Angico, Eucalyptus, Jatobá, Paricá, Pine and Teak), by using linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial regression models. The results highlighted the significance and representation of all adjustments investigated, and the cubic polynomial was the most efficient for estimating the wood toughness.
Wood is a material widely used in various sectors of construction, such as in structures and building components. The volume of wood extracted from tropical forests has reached a considerable amount, and this wood is marketed with popular names without prior characterization. Wood density is an easy property to measure, and its use as an estimator of other properties is very common in this sector. This study investigated the possibility of the estimation of important quantities in dimensional stability of Brazilian tropical woods by using the density at 12% moisture content, anhydrous density, and basic density. Testing the ability to estimate radial, axial, tangential, and volumetric shrinkage, anisotropy coefficient, coefficient of volumetric rate of volumetric shrinkage, as well as the rate of volumetric swelling using the densities above, with linear, exponential, geometric, and logarithmic models, the best determination coefficient was: R 2 = 19.58%. The results were, in summary, that the variable density was not a good estimator of the dimensional stability of the wood.
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The knowledge about anisotropy of wood possibility more security design of structures and structural members designed. Therefore, there are little quantity of results knowledge about shrinkage and anisotropy coefficients of Wood species, motivating the development of new researches. The aim of research is evaluate the possibility of estimate the full shrinkage (radial; tangential; volumetric), anisotropy coefficient and shrinkage coefficient (radial; tangential; volumetric), using polynomial regression models (linear; quadratic; cubic) and exponential, by density of five Wood species (Cedro Doce [C20]; Canafístula [C30]; Angelim Araroba [C40]; Mandioqueira [C50]; Angelim Vermelho [C60]), properly classifieds in five strength classes for dicotyledonous according Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR 7190:1997. The better results were from tangential and volumetric retractions both using exponentials functions, justified by lower values of variation coefficients, with coefficients values of determination adjusted ranging from 51 and 54%. Even considered significant to the regressions for the tangential and volumetric shrinkage by analysis of variance, but with adjusted coefficients of determination lower than 70%, news researches should realized with other Wood species, enabling find general expressions for estimating such properties using the knowledge of the density.
Shrinkage and coefficient of anisotropy are fundamental physical parameters in analysis of dimensional stability of timber structures members. In Brazil, properties of wood are obtained according to assumptions and calculation required by Annex B of ABNT NBR 7190: 1997 (Timber Structures Design). Among the physical properties, density appears as the easiest one to be experimentally obtained, defined by ratio between mass of the sample and its volume. To evaluate the possibility of estimating shrinkage (longitudinal, RL; radial, RR; tangential, RT; volumetric, RV; and coefficient of anisotropy, CA) of wood depending on density, this study aimed to test regression models (linear, exponential, logarithmic, geometric) using basic density (ρ bas ) and apparent density (ρ 12 ) as independent variables. For this purpose, five wood species belonging to conifers: Pinus sp., Pinus oocarpa; and dicotyledonous: Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum), Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) and Lyptus®, were employed. In all, 23 samples for Pinus sp.; 15 for Pinus oocarpa; 28 for Paricá; 16 for Lyptus®; and 11 for Jatobá were produced, totaling 651 determinations. Results of analysis of variance for regression models indicated insignificance of the adjustments obtained by adopting densities as estimators of shrinkage and coefficient of anisotropy for this set of wood species. Only models involving basic density and apparent density were significant, wherein the optimal settings were from linear case, exhibiting coefficient of determination (R 2 ) 91.72% (for softwoods) and 83.36% (for hardwoods).
Wood toughness is a mechanical property of interest in structural design where the load impact must be considered, finding a strong application in bridges, however, not an integral part of the mechanical properties commonly investigated in the characterization of this material. This study aimed to investigate with the aid of variance analysis, the influence of growth ring orientation to obtain toughness for Angelim Saia (Parkia pendula), Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus elliottii and Corymbia citriodora wood species, considering three different positions, so that the orientation causes tensile strength in fibers near the pitch, near the bark, and in the radial direction. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that there was no significance in the orientation of the growth rings to obtain the toughness of the wood species investigated, where the highest values were for Corymbia citriodora and the least values were for Pinus elliottii.
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