RESUMO:O etanol é um dos agentes químicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias malignas bucais. Os micronúcleos são porções de cromatina que permanecem próximas ao núcleo, resultantes de mitoses aberrantes após a ação de agentes genotóxicos. Dessa forma, sua ocorrência reflete o grau de exposição celular a carcinógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de indiví-duos dependentes químicos de etanol. A amostra constou de células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de 40 indivíduos alcoólatras não fumantes e de 20 abstêmios de álcool e fumo. As células obtidas foram coradas pelo método de Feulgen e contracoradas pelo "Fast Green". Observou-se um aumento estatisticamente significativo da freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua no grupo de indivíduos expostos ao etanol em relação ao grupo controle (p < 0,01). A freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da mucosa jugal apresentou-se maior no grupo de indivíduos alcoólatras quando comparado ao grupo controle, porém não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05). Conclui-se, portanto, que o consumo excessivo de etanol promove alterações efetivas em células da mucosa bucal, mesmo na ausência de exposição ao fumo. Tais alterações apresentam-se mais expressivas no bordo lateral de língua, um sítio mais exposto à ação de carcinógenos quando comparado à mucosa jugal. UNITERMOS: Neoplasias bucais; Etanol; Micronúcleos.ABSTRACT: Ethanol is one of the chemicals related to the development of oral malignant neoplasms. Micronuclei are chromatin fragments which, after aberrant mitoses, do not become included in the main nucleus. They have been used as indicators of genotoxic damage in cells exposed to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated cells from the tongue and buccal mucosa of alcoholic individuals. Samples were taken from the tongue and buccal mucosa of 40 alcoholic individuals who did not smoke, and from 20 alcohol and tobacco abstainers. Cells were stained with the Feulgen reaction and counterstained with Fast Green. A significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in tongue cells was found in the group of subjects exposed to alcohol, when compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The frequency of micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells was higher in the group of alcoholic individuals, when compared to the control group, although there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). Our results indicate that excessive alcohol consumption may induce effective alterations on oral mucosa cells, even without exposure to tobacco. These alterations are more expressive in the tongue, which is a site more exposed to the action of carcinogens, when compared to the buccal mucosa. UNITERMS: Mouth neoplasms; Ethanol; Micronuclei. INTRODUÇÃODiversos agentes influem de forma genotóxica nas células e estão relacionados aos vários está-gios da carcinogênese. Com relação à cavidade bucal, o fumo tem sido descr...
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are the main cellular component in stroma of many tumors and participate in tumor angiogenesis. The aim of present study was to compare the microvascular density (MVD) and infiltrating macrophage density (IMD) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) with different histological grades. A histomorphometric analysis was performed after immunohistochemistry using antibodies such as von-Willebrand factor and CD68. A significant difference in MVD was found between well and moderately differentiated OSCCs (p<0.05). TAM were largely present in all studied tumors and the IMD was not different among OSCCs with different histological grades (p=0.381). Significant correlation between MVD and IMD was not observed (p=0.870). In conclusion, these results suggest that TAM and angiogenesis have an influence at different histological grades of OSCC. However, the lack of correlation between MVD and IMD could suggest that angiogenesis does not depend on the number of macrophages present in OSCC, but their predominant phenotype. Further studies involving distinct phenotypes of macrophages should be done to better understand the influence of TAM on the tumor angiogenesis.
The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological features of radicular cysts (RCs) diagnosed in a Brazilian population. Seventy-three cases of RCs, from a total of 1480 biopsies diagnosed between 2001 and 2008 at the Laboratory of Oral Surgical Pathology of the Dental School of the Federal University of Bahia were investigated regarding their histopathological features. Morphological results showed that exocytosis (n=50), spongiosis (n=40), acanthosis (n=28), atrophic epithelium (n=27) and apoptotic bodies (n=21) were the most common findings. Other morphological findings included: foamy macrophages (n=10), Russell's bodies (n=7), cholesterol crystals (n=7) and glandular-like odontogenic epithelial rests (n=1). Evidence of exogenous material was seen in 16 samples. It was concluded that the clinical and histopathological findings observed in Brazilian patients were comparable with those described for other populations.
Imunolabeling for Ki-67 was directly correlated with less-differentiated tumors, suggesting that this marker may contribute to understand the biological behavior of OSCC, and help to distinguish risk groups of OSCC. Furthermore, the lack of correlation between Ki-67, COX-2, and CD68 indicates that the latter two markers may play a pivotal role in oral carcinogenesis. However, further studies are needed to clarify their contribution for cell proliferation and tumor differentiation.
Proteoglycans are involved in tumor development and may regulate the Hedgehog (HH) pathway. This study aimed to investigate the gene and protein expression of glypican-1 (GPC1), -3 (GPC3), and -5 (GPC5) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and tumor-free lateral margins (TM) and their association with the HH pathway. Quantitative PCR was performed for GPC1, GPC3, GPC5, SHH, PTCH1, SMO, and GLI1 genes in samples of OSCC (n = 31), TM (n = 12), and non-neoplastic oral mucosa (NNM) of healthy patients (n = 6), alongside an immunohistochemical evaluation of GPC1, GPC3, and GPC5 proteins and HH proteins SHH and gliomaassociated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1). Double staining for GPC3/ SHH, GPC5/SHH, GPC3/tubulin [ac Lys40], GPC5/Tubulin [ac Lys40], and GPC5/GLI1 was also performed. Overexpression of GPC1 and GPC5 in tumor samples and underexpressed levels of GPC3 gene transcripts were observed when compared with TM (standard sample). HH pathway mRNA aberrant expression in OSCC samples and a negative correlation between GPC1 and GPC5 at transcription levels were detected. GPC1 staining was rare in OSCC, but positive cells were found in NNM and TM. Otherwise positive immunostaining for GPC3 and GPC5 was observed in OSCCs, but not in NNM and TM. Blood vessels adjacent to tumor islands were positive for GPC1 and GPC5. Co-localization of GPC3-positive and GPC5-positive cells with SHH and Tubulin [ac Lys40] proteins was noted, as well as of GPC5 and GLI1. The absence of the GPC1 protein in neoplastic cells, underexpression of the GPC3 gene, and co-localization of GPCs and HH proteins may indicate the maintenance of aberrant HH pathway activation in OSCC.
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