The strong interest in graphene has motivated the scalable production of high-quality graphene and graphene devices. As the large-scale graphene films synthesized so far are typically polycrystalline, it is important to characterize and control grain boundaries, generally believed to degrade graphene quality. Here we study single-crystal graphene grains synthesized by ambient chemical vapour deposition on polycrystalline Cu, and show how individual boundaries between coalescing grains affect graphene's electronic properties. The graphene grains show no definite epitaxial relationship with the Cu substrate, and can cross Cu grain boundaries. The edges of these grains are found to be predominantly parallel to zigzag directions. We show that grain boundaries give a significant Raman 'D' peak, impede electrical transport, and induce prominent weak localization indicative of intervalley scattering in graphene. Finally, we demonstrate an approach using pre-patterned growth seeds to control graphene nucleation, opening a route towards scalable fabrication of single-crystal graphene devices without grain boundaries.
Organic-inorganic halide perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) constitute an attractive class of materials for many optoelectronic applications. However, their charge transport properties are inferior to materials like graphene. On the other hand, the charge generation efficiency of graphene is too low to be used in many optoelectronic applications. Here, we demonstrate the development of ultrathin phototransistors and photonic synapses using a graphene-PQD (G-PQD) superstructure prepared by growing PQDs directly from a graphene lattice. We show that the G-PQDs superstructure synchronizes efficient charge generation and transport on a single platform. G-PQD phototransistors exhibit excellent responsivity of 1.4 × 108 AW–1 and specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1015 Jones at 430 nm. Moreover, the light-assisted memory effect of these superstructures enables photonic synaptic behavior, where neuromorphic computing is demonstrated by facial recognition with the assistance of machine learning. We anticipate that the G-PQD superstructures will bolster new directions in the development of highly efficient optoelectronic devices.
2D materials have attracted considerable attention due to their exciting optical and electronic properties, and demonstrate immense potential for next-generation solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. With the scaling trends in photovoltaics moving toward thinner active materials, the atomically thin bodies and high flexibility of 2D materials make them the obvious choice for integration with future-generation photovoltaic technology. Not only can graphene, with its high transparency and conductivity, be used as the electrodes in solar cells, but also its ambipolar electrical transport enables it to serve as both the anode and the cathode. 2D materials beyond graphene, such as transition-metal dichalcogenides, are direct-bandgap semiconductors at the monolayer level, and they can be used as the active layer in ultrathin flexible solar cells. However, since no 2D material has been featured in the roadmap of standard photovoltaic technologies, a proper synergy is still lacking between the recently growing 2D community and the conventional solar community. A comprehensive review on the current state-of-the-art of 2D-materials-based solar photovoltaics is presented here so that the recent advances of 2D materials for solar cells can be employed for formulating the future roadmap of various photovoltaic technologies.
Top-gated, few-layer graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated on thermally decomposed semi-insulating 4H-SiC substrates are demonstrated. Physical vapor deposited SiO2 is used as the gate dielectric. A two-dimensional hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms with the correct lattice vectors, observed by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy, confirms the formation of multiple graphene layers on top of the SiC substrates. The observation of n-type and p-type transition further verifies Dirac Fermions’ unique transport properties in graphene layers. The measured electron and hole mobilities on these fabricated graphene FETs are as high as 5400 and 4400cm2∕Vs, respectively, which are much larger than the corresponding values from conventional SiC or silicon.
We present a comprehensive study of the structural and electronic properties of ultrathin films containing graphene layers synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) based surface segregation on polycrystalline Ni foils then transferred onto insulating SiO 2 /Si substrates. Films of size up to several mm's have been synthesized. Structural characterizations by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and Raman spectroscopy confirm that such large scale graphitic thin films (GTF) contain both thick graphite regions and thin regions of few layer graphene. The films also contain many wrinkles, with sharply-bent tips and dislocations revealed by XTEM, yielding insights on the growth and buckling processes of the GTF. Measurements on mm-scale back-gated transistor devices fabricated from the transferred GTF show ambipolar field effect with resistance modulation ~50% and carrier mobilities reaching ~2000 cm 2 /Vs. We also demonstrate quantum transport of carriers with phase coherence length over 0.2 µm from the observation of 2D weak localization in low temperature magneto-transport measurements. Our results show that despite the non-uniformity and surface roughness, such largescale, flexible thin films can have electronic properties promising for device applications.
We observe a sixfold Purcell broadening of the D2 line of an optically trapped 87 Rb atom strongly coupled to a fiber cavity. Under external illumination by a near-resonant laser, up to 90% of the atom's fluorescence is emitted into the resonant cavity mode. The sub-Poissonian statistics of the cavity output and the Purcell enhancement of the atomic decay rate are confirmed by the observation of a strongly narrowed antibunching dip in the photon autocorrelation function. The photon leakage through the higher-transmission mirror of the single-sided resonator is the dominant contribution to the field decay (κ ≈ 2π×50 MHz), thus offering a high-bandwidth, fiber-coupled channel for photonic interfaces such as quantum memories and single-photon sources.
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