We have developed evidence-based recommendations to inform clinical decision-making in the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. They represent, in our opinion, contemporary optimal care for patients with these disorders.
We created evidence-based recommendations in response to our appointment as an independent task force by the American Thyroid Association to assist in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. They represent, in our opinion, contemporary optimal care for patients with these disorders.
These data suggest consideration of a more conservative approach for most patients with thyroid nodules that are cytologically indeterminate on fine-needle aspiration and benign according to gene-expression classifier results. (Funded by Veracyte.).
These results indicate that molecular testing of thyroid nodules for a panel of mutations can be effectively performed in a clinical setting. It enhances the accuracy of FNA cytology and is of particular value for thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.
In this study, we demonstrate that various histopathological types of thyroid tumors have distinct miRNA profiles, which further differ within the same tumor type, reflecting specific oncogenic mutations. A limited set of miRNAs can be used diagnostically with high accuracy to detect thyroid cancer in the surgical and preoperative FNA samples.
Our previous paradigm assigned the same magnitude of risk for all patients with N1 disease. However, small-volume subclinical microscopic N1 disease clearly conveys a much smaller risk of recurrence than large-volume, macroscopic clinically apparent loco-regional metastases. Armed with this information, clinicians will be better able to tailor initial treatment and follow-up recommendations. Implications of N1 stratification for PTC into small-volume microscopic disease versus clinically apparent macroscopic disease importantly relate to issues of prophylactic neck dissection utility, need for pathologic nodal size description, and suggest potential modifications to the AJCC TNM (tumor, nodal disease, and distant metastasis) and ATA risk recurrence staging systems.
Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. It has been recently shown that these tumors commonly have one of three genetic alterations: BRAF point mutations, RET/PTC rearrangements, or RAS point mutations. In this study, we analyze the relationship between these alterations and the microscopic features of papillary carcinomas, their clinical features, and prognostic characteristics. Ninety-seven papillary carcinomas were studied; in all cases, frozen tissue was available for nucleic acid extraction. Of 96 unselected cases, 42% were positive for BRAF, 18% for RET/PTC, and 15% for RAS mutations. Morphologic features were evaluated in detail in 61 cases and 6 characteristic nuclear features and 3 additional microscopic features were assessed quantitatively. At least 4 nuclear features were found in each tumor, with nuclear pseudoinclusions being the least frequent finding in all mutation groups. BRAF mutations were associated with older patient age, typical papillary appearance or the tall cell variant, a higher rate of extrathyroidal extension, and more advanced tumor stage at presentation. RET/PTC rearrangements presented at younger age and had predominantly typical papillary histology, frequent psammoma bodies, and a high rate of lymph node metastases. Tumors with RAS mutations were exclusively the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and correlated with significantly less prominent nuclear features and low rate of lymph node metastases. These findings demonstrate that BRAF, RET/PTC, and RAS mutations are associated with distinct microscopic, clinical, and biologic features of thyroid papillary carcinomas.
Can the diagnosis of benign disease or cancer in thyroid nodules with indeterminate
cytology be established by molecular testing instead of diagnostic surgery?
This prospective, blinded, multicenter cohort study of a multigene genomic classifier
(ThyroSeq v3) test included 257 indeterminate cytology thyroid nodules with informative
test results. It demonstrated a high sensitivity (94%) and reasonably high specificity
(82%), with 61% of the nodules yielding a negative test result and only 3% residual
cancer risk in these nodules.
Up to 61% of patients with indeterminate cytology thyroid nodules may avoid diagnostic
surgery by undergoing multigene genomic classifier testing.
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