(1) to compare two series of precipitation data from different periods (1930–1950 and 1950–2000) in three sectors of the southern dry Chaco in the arid and semi‐arid sub‐regions; (2) construct maps showing the distribution of land‐cover units for 1979, 1999, 2004 and 2010 for the same three sectors; and (3) assess the changes in land‐cover units occurred between 1979 and 2010 in the three sectors.
Southern extreme of the dry Chaco in NE and NW Córdoba Province, central Argentina.
We compared annual and growth period (November–March) precipitation among the three sectors and between two series of data corresponding to different periods (1930–1950 and 1950–2000) using repeated measures ANOVA, with the station as the subject variable, period as the within‐factor and sector as the between factor. Using three Landsat MSS (1979) and nine Landsat TM (1999, 2004 and 2010) images we mapped the distribution of eight land‐cover units for the whole study area. For each sector (NE, NW and W), we performed a change detection analysis between 1979 and 2010.
The classification of Landsat MSS and TM images resulted in reliable land‐cover maps (overall accuracy 80%). Our results showed that vegetation cover in the area is highly disturbed and that the present status of vegetation cover differs among the three sectors. In the more humid sector, the land‐cover changes have been dominated by replacement of closed forests by crops, while in the driest portion of the study area forest loss was not related to agriculture. Additionally, we found that significant increases in precipitation have occurred in all three sectors, but the increase was highest in the humid sector.
The differences observed among the three sectors suggest that precipitation may have effectively played a dominant role in the process of forest conversion to agriculture.
Using experimental chicken houses at a site in central Argentina where the bug Triatoma infestans (Klug) is endemic, nine populations of this vector of Chagas disease were monitored during a 34-month period. Bug populations with four chickens as hosts were consistently larger than those with two chickens as hosts. Age structure of the bug population followed a similar pattern irrespective of the initial age structure. Egg to adult mortality was consistently around 98.5% and there was no consistent evidence for density-dependent mortality. There was some evidence for density dependence in fecundity and recruitment rates, but these were heavily constrained by low temperatures during the winter months. Nymphal development rates correlated most strongly with mean minimum temperatures rather than with mean maximum temperatures. We conclude that vector control using insecticides against this species would be most effective at the onset of winter, when recovery of any surviving populations would be inhibited by low temperatures.
Male and female T. infestans were released on two consecutive nights in the salinas of Cordoba Province, Argentina, when air temperatures during the flying period averaged 28.5 degrees C. 136 males (43% of the total released) and 170 females (57%) flew on the first night, and 6 males (18%) and 7 females (27%) on the second. Of these, we recovered 23 males and 14 females within 100 m, and a further female within 200 m, all from the first night's release. The remainder appear to have flown more than 100 m and possibly more than 200 m. In support of this conclusion 4 male and 5 female bugs were recovered in an abandoned brick house 550 m from the release point. Since the proportion of bugs apparently flying more than 200 m is considerably greater than that deduced from previous experiments at lower temperatures (Lehane & Schofield, 1981) it is possible that temperature influences not only the proportion of bugs flying but also the distance flown. Flight appears to be affected by wind speed. On the first night, when there was negligible wind, 43% of male and 57% of female bugs flew. On the second night, with winds gusting at 4-5 m/s, only 18% of the male and 27% of the female bugs flew.
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted to mammals - including humans - by insect vectors of the subfamily Triatominae. We present the results of a compilation of triatomine occurrence and complementary ecological data that represents the most complete, integrated and updated database (DataTri) available on triatomine species at a continental scale. This database was assembled by collecting the records of triatomine species published from 1904 to 2017, spanning all American countries with triatomine presence. A total of 21815 georeferenced records were obtained from published literature, personal fieldwork and data provided by colleagues. The data compiled includes 24 American countries, 14 genera and 135 species. From a taxonomic perspective, 67.33% of the records correspond to the genus Triatoma, 20.81% to Panstrongylus, 9.01% to Rhodnius and the remaining 2.85% are distributed among the other 11 triatomine genera. We encourage using DataTri information in various areas, especially to improve knowledge of the geographical distribution of triatomine species and its variations in time.
Background: Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans.
Aedes albifasciatus is a flood water mosquito ocurring in the southern countries of South America. It is a competent vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) and causes important losses on milk and beef production in central Argentina. Field work was carried out from December 1990 to March 1993, on a monthly basis during the dry season and biweekly during the rainy season. Larvae were collected using the 'dipping' technique and females with CDC traps baited with CO2. Field collected larvae were used to build laboratory cohorts, from which basic population parameters were estimated. Eggs survived up to six months on dry soil, although there was a linear decrease of viability with time. At 23ºC, larval development time was around nine days, and all adults emerged within one week. The estimation of larval development in the laboratory seems to be very near the development on the field, as larvae have been collected on average eight days after a rainfall. Egg to adult survival was 83%, with the highest mortality on fourth larval instar (6%). In the laboratory studies, sex proportion among the adults was 1:1, females lived longer than males (median 13 and five days, respectively), and adult survival pattern showed a constant number of individuals dying per unit time. Field collected females layed an average of 84 eggs per batch, and completing up to five gonotrophic cycles, suggesting an estimated survival of up to 35-50 days
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