Uma das formas de melhoria da qualidade e da produção do tomateiro é a adoção de técnicas adequadas de manejo da cultura, destacando-se o uso da enxertia e o método de condução das plantas. Contudo, no Brasil, há falta de informações que estimulem essas práticas. Por isso, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho de portaenxertos para tomateiro, com vigoroso sistema radicular, conduzido com quatro hastes, em fibra da casca de coco, em ambiente protegido. Adotou-se o espaçamento de 2,0 m entrelinhas e 0,40 m entre plantas. Para isso, foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo, os tratamentos, dois portaenxertos ('Maxifort' e 'Multifort'), autoenxertia ('Alambra' em 'Alambra'), e o pé franco ('Alambra'). Cada parcela foi constituída de 20 plantas, sendo avaliadas as 14 plantas centrais. Não houve efeito significativo no uso dos portaenxertos sobre as características de produção e de qualidade dos frutos. Na avaliação do estado nutricional, houve diferenças para os teores de P, Mg e Ca em plantas enxertadas. Portanto, os porta-enxertos 'Maxifort' e 'Multifort', cultivados nas condições em que o experimento foi realizado, não proporcionaram aumento da produção e da qualidade dos frutos. Palavras-chave:Solanum lycopersicum L.; enxertia; fibra da casca de coco; cultivo protegido; número de hastes. Rafaelle Fazzi Gomes Rootstocks for tomato conducted with four stemsOne way of improving the quality and production of tomato is the adoption of appropriate techniques for crop management, especially the use of grafting and conduction method of the plants. However, in Brazil, there is a lack of information to encourage such practices. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of rootstocks for tomato plants, with vigorous root system, conducted with four stems, in coconut fiber, under protected cultivation. The adopted spacing was 2.0 m between rows and 0.40 m between plants. For this, we used a randomized block design with four treatments and six replications. The treatments consisted of two rootstocks ("Maxifort" and "Multifort"), self-grafted ("Alambra" in "Alambra"), and ungrafted ("Alambra"). Each plot consisted of 20 plants, out of which the 14 central plants were evaluated. There was no significant effect on yield and fruit quality. In the assessment of nutritional status, there were no differences in the levels of P, Mg, and Ca in grafted plants. Therefore, the rootstocks Maxifort and Multifort, grown under conditions in which the experiment was conducted, did not increase the production and quality of fruits.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of three Japanese group cucumber hybrids, which were cultivated in two cultivation systems. The experiment was designed in a split-plot randomized block design with two cultivation systems (coconut fiber and soil) for commercial Japanese cucumber hybrids ('Tsuyataro', 'Yoshinari' and 'Nankyoku'). After harvesting the cucumbers, we evaluated the number of marketable fruits per plant, the average fruit length, the mean fruit diameter, the bottom fruit diameter, the marketable production of fruits per plant and the marketable yield per hectare. There were significant interactions between the cultivation system and the hybrid, as indicated by the number of marketable fruits. The Nankyoku hybrid had the highest average (14.54 fruits pl -1 ), although it did not differ from the Yoshinari hybrid when grown in coconut fiber. In soil culture, the Yoshinari hybrid had the highest average number of fruits per plant (10.12 fruits pl -1 ) and did not differ from the Tsuyataro hybrid. Cultivation in coconut fiber provided better results for production traits and plant productivity. 'Yoshinari' and 'Nankyoku' were the most productive hybrids. Based on the cucumber cultivation results from a protected environment, the cultivation of hybrid Japanese cucumbers and Yoshinari and Nankyoku hybrids in coconut fiber is recommended.
ResumoSistemas de cultivo em substrato têm sido utilizados por grande parte dos produtores de hortaliças. No entanto, ainda é necessária a obtenção de conhecimentos específicos sobre o desempenho das plantas nesses sistemas, possibilitando, assim, maior eficiência no cultivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o crescimento do meloeiro rendilhado 'Fantasy' cultivado em substrato em ambiente protegido. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos preenchidos com substrato contendo uma mistura de areia e casca de amendoim em partes iguais. A irrigação foi realizada por gotejamento com solução nutritiva recomendada para a cultura em cultivo hidropônico. Foi determinada a dinâmica de crescimento da cultura avaliando-se o número de folhas, massa seca das folhas (g), do caule (g) e dos frutos (g). Foram calculadas as taxas de crescimento absoluto da cultura; taxa de crescimento relativo; taxa assimilatória líquida; área foliar específica; razão de massa foliar; razão de massa de frutos; e razão de área foliar. Na colheita, foi avaliada a produção e qualidade dos frutos. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se que os frutos foram responsáveis pela maior porcentagem de matéria seca acumulada na planta. As taxas de crescimento das plantas são decrescentes, principalmente, após a fase de frutificação. Palavras-chave: Cucumis melo var. reticulatus; Areia; Casca de amendoim; Cultivo protegido AbstractGrowth dynamic of 'Fantasy' net melon cultivated in substrate under protected cultivation. Cultivation systems on substrate have been used by a large part of vegetable producers. However, there is still a need to obtain specific knowledge on the performance of plants in these systems, thus enabling a greater effectiveness in cultivation. This paper aimed to characterize the growth of the net melon plant 'Fantasy' cultivated on substrate under a protected environment. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with substrate containing a mixture of sand and peanut shell in equal parts. Irrigation was performed by drip with the nutrient solution recommended for hydroponic cultivation. We determined the growth dynamics of the culture by quantifying the leaves and the mass of dry leaves (g), stem (g), and fruits (g). We calculated the absolute growth rate of the culture; relative growth rate; net assimilation rate; specific leaf area; leaf mass ratio; fruit mass ratio; and leaf area ratio. At
Lettuce is the most consumed leafy vegetable in Brazil. Its production, nonetheless, is increasing in difficulties mainly due to the infestation of producing areas with Bremia lactucae. Thus, the use of horizontal resistant cultivars is the most viable alternative in controlling progress of disease. So, the objective of this study was to obtain resistant lettuce progenies to the races of downy mildew: SPBl:01, SPBl:02, SPBl:03, SPBl:04, SPBl:05, SPBl:06 and SPBl:07. The breeding consisted of two stages: crossover of parentals to obtain the resistant lettuce progenies and endurance test of the progeny to B. lactucae races. The parentals used to obtain progenies with resistance factor R-18 and R-38 were: JAB 4-13-7 and JAB 4-13-7. The Pedigree method was used for obtaining the progeny, using as default selections the Hortência cultivar and JAB 4-13-7genotype. After selection and selfing of the plants in the field, the resistance or susceptibility test was realized, by inoculation of the progenies from the crosses, with mixture of distilled water + sporangia of B. lactucae races SPBl:01, SPBl:02, SPBl:03, SPBl:04, SPBl:05, SPBl:06 and SPBl:07 obtained from isolates collected in the years 2008-2010. Fifteen days after inoculation, the seedlings were selected as resistant or susceptible, discarding those presenting sporulation and necrotic spots caused by B. lactucae. Through the Pedigree method we found 69 progenies F 3 with good agronomic characteristics. However, after resistance or susceptibility test, only 19 showed all the plants resistant to downy mildew.
Knowledge of the most essential nutrients for plant growth facilitates the efficient handling of its nutrition, especially when they are grown on a substrate supported by fertigation. The objective of this study was to determine the accumulation of nutrients in net melon grown on a substrate and understand the relationship between mineral nutrition and plant growth. The Fantasy hybrid was cultivated in pots containing a substrate consisting of a mixture of sand and peanut shells (ratio, 1:1). Determination of nutrient accumulation was performed in 6 seasons. The substrate was chemically characterized before and after cultivation. Harvesting occurred 78 days after transplantation, resulting in an average yield of 70,120 kg·ha -1 . Substrate analysis showed a small increase in nutrient levels by the end of cultivation. The order of nutrient accumulation was as follows: N>Ca>K>P>Mg>S>B>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu. Key words: Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, greenhouse, nutrition ResumoO conhecimento dos nutrientes mais requeridos pelas plantas possibilita o manejo mais eficiente na nutrição destas, principalmente, quando são cultivadas em substrato com fertirrigação. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a marcha de acúmulo de nutrientes do meloeiro rendilhado cultivado em substrato. O híbrido Fantasy foi cultivado em vasos contendo substrato (mistura de areia e casca de amendoim em partes iguais). A determinação da marcha de acúmulo de nutrientes foi realizada em seis épocas. O substrato foi caracterizado quimicamente antes e após o cultivo. A colheita ocorreu aos 78 dias após o transplante, obtendo-se produtividade média de 70.120 kg ha -1 . A massa média e o teor de sólidos solúveis, obtido pelos frutos, foram de 1,75 kg e 10,2 °Brix, respectivamente. A análise do substrato demonstrou pouco incremento de nutrientes no fim do cultivo. A ordem de acúmulo de nutrientes foi: N>Ca>K>P>Mg>S>B>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu. Palavras-chave: Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, cultivo protegido, nutrição 1 Agronomist Engineer, PhD student in Agronomy,
Among the most modern techniques of vegetables production cultivation in substrate is highlighted. In this method the substrate and the nutritive solution are main components that deliver nutrients to the crop and directly influence the performance of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reuse of substrate with several concentration of the nutritive solution in cultivation of tomato plants of the salad group 'Paronset'. The experimental design was a randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 3x5, with four replicates. The plants were grown in coconut husk fiber, in three substrate reuse levels (new substrate, reused once and reused twice) and five concentrations of the nutritive solution recommended for the culture [25%; 50%; 100% (original solution); 150% and 200%]. The chemical and physical characterization of the substrate after cultivation was done such as fruit productivity and quality and nutritional status of the plants. Physical characteristics were only influenced when substrate was reutilized. Chemical characteristics of the substrate were influenced by both the reuse of the substrate and the concentration of the nutritive solution. It was observed that the nutritional status of the plants was influenced only by the concentration of the nutritive solution. It was also noted that the productivity and fruit mass decreased after the second reuse of the substrate. The use of the original solution (100%) allowed the highest productivity; however, the largest fruit mass was obtained with the most dilute solution (25%).
Lettuce is the most consumed leafy vegetable in Brazil. However, its production has faced increasing difficulties mainly due to the infestation of producing areas with Bremia lactucae, the causing agent of downy mildew, the worst disease in lettuce. The aim of this study was to identify B. lactucae races occurring in lettuce producing areas of São Paulo state, during 2008 and 2009. Lettuce leaf samples containing B. lactucae sporangia were collected in the major lettuce producing areas of São Paulo. Each sample was considered an isolate. After the multiplication of sporangia in the susceptible cultivar Solaris, with subsequent inoculation in the differentiating cultivars, the evaluations were performed on the same day of the first sporulation in the susceptible cultivar 'Cobham Green (DM 0)'. In 2008 one new B. lactucae code was identified. SPBl:05 was the denomination proposed to it. In 2009 one another B. lactucae code was identified, that is, 63/63/02/00, whose denomination was proposed to be SPBl:06.
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