Automated surface-anomaly detection using machine learning has become an interesting and promising area of research, with a very high and direct impact on the application domain of visual inspection. Deep-learning methods have become the most suitable approaches for this task. They allow the inspection system to learn to detect the surface anomaly by simply showing it a number of exemplar images. This paper presents a segmentation-based deep-learning architecture that is designed for the detection and segmentation of surface anomalies and is demonstrated on a specific domain of surface-crack detection. The design of the architecture enables the model to be trained using a small number of samples, which is an important requirement for practical applications. The proposed model is compared with the related deep-learning methods, including the state-ofthe-art commercial software, showing that the proposed approach outperforms the related methods on the specific domain of surface-crack detection. The large number of experiments also shed light on the required precision of the annotation, the number of required training samples and on the required computational cost. Experiments are performed on a newly created dataset based on a real-world quality control case and demonstrates that the proposed approach is able to learn on a small number of defected surfaces, using only approximately 25-30 defective training samples, instead of hundreds or thousands, which is usually the case in deeplearning applications. This makes the deep-learning method practical for use in industry where the number of available defective samples is limited. The dataset is also made publicly available to encourage the development and evaluation of new methods for surface-defect detection.
Linear subspace methods that provide sufficient reconstruction of the data, such as PCA, offer an efficient way of dealing with missing pixels, outliers, and occlusions that often appear in the visual data. Discriminative methods, such as LDA, which, on the other hand, are better suited for classification tasks, are highly sensitive to corrupted data. We present a theoretical framework for achieving the best of both types of methods: An approach that combines the discrimination power of discriminative methods with the reconstruction property of reconstructive methods which enables one to work on subsets of pixels in images to efficiently detect and reject the outliers. The proposed approach is therefore capable of robust classification with a high-breakdown point. We also show that subspace methods, such as CCA, which are used for solving regression tasks, can be treated in a similar manner. The theoretical results are demonstrated on several computer vision tasks showing that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the standard discriminative methods in the case of missing pixels and images containing occlusions and outliers.
Automatic detection and recognition of traffic signs plays a crucial role in management of the traffic-sign inventory. It provides accurate and timely way to manage traffic-sign inventory with a minimal human effort. In the computer vision community the recognition and detection of traffic signs is a well-researched problem. A vast majority of existing approaches perform well on traffic signs needed for advanced driversassistance and autonomous systems. However, this represents a relatively small number of all traffic signs (around 50 categories out of several hundred) and performance on the remaining set of traffic signs, which are required to eliminate the manual labor in traffic-sign inventory management, remains an open question. In this paper, we address the issue of detecting and recognizing a large number of traffic-sign categories suitable for automating traffic-sign inventory management. We adopt a convolutional neural network (CNN) approach, the Mask R-CNN, to address the full pipeline of detection and recognition with automatic end-to-end learning. We propose several improvements that are evaluated on the detection of traffic signs and result in an improved overall performance. This approach is applied to detection of 200 traffic-sign categories represented in our novel dataset. Results are reported on highly challenging trafficsign categories that have not yet been considered in previous works. We provide comprehensive analysis of the deep learning method for the detection of traffic signs with large intra-category appearance variation and show below 3% error rates with the proposed approach, which is sufficient for deployment in practical applications of traffic-sign inventory management.Index Terms-Deep learning, Traffic-sign detection and recognition, Traffic-sign dataset, Mask R-CNN, Traffic-sign inventory management.
We present a novel on-line conservative learningframework for an object detection system. All algorithms operate in an on-line mode, in particular we also present a novel on-line AdaBoost method. The basic idea is to start with a very simple object detection system and to exploit a huge amount of unlabeled video data by being very conservative in selecting training examples. The key idea is to use reconstructive and discriminative classifiers in an iterative co-training fashion to arrive at increasingly better object detectors. We demonstrate the framework on a surveillance task where we learn person detectors that are tested on two surveillance video sequences. We start with a simple moving object classifier and proceed with incremental PCA (on shape and appearance) as a reconstructive classifier which in turn generates a training setfor a discriminative on-line AdaBoost classifier
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