Depression is a disabling illness which increases the risk of suicide. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a rise in fear, anxiety, stress, and depression among the population: of these, university undergraduates from countries severely affected by COVID-19 are some of the most vulnerable of all, as they face strict lockdown measures and have fewer resources to cope with it. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of fear of COVID-19, stress, anxiety, and depression during lockdown among undergraduates from Ecuador, and to test these possible predictors of depression using a model taken from our study of the scientific literature. A total of 640 undergraduates (72% women) between 18 and 47 years old (M = 21.69; S.D = 4.093) were surveyed. The resulting mean levels found for stress, anxiety, and depression were above levels considered non-pathological. Women showed higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than men. The statistical prediction for depression showed a good fit. This depression could be related: both directly and positively by fear of COVID-19 and stress, and indirectly, as a result of these two factors, positively mediated by anxiety. Our study concludes by highlighting the important role that the complex relationships between fear, stress, and anxiety can play in the development of depression symptoms and how they can be taken into account in programs aimed at preventing and alleviating this disorder. We propose some general measures for reducing fear of COVID-19 and stress and suggest that specific programs be designed to control and overcome anxiety among undergraduates.
Previous studies have shown that there is overlap between victimization and the perpetration of bullying, and social and motivational variables are known to mediate this relationship. However, the effects of different moral disengagement strategies have not been studied, despite the fact that they exert a major influence on aggressive behavior. This hypothesis and the moderating role of gender were tested through a longitudinal study ( N = 2,066) administered in three waves at 6-month intervals. The results indicated that cognitive restructuring influenced the association between victimization and subsequent bullying. In high victimization scores, boys had higher scores in bullying perpetration compared to girls. The conclusion underlines the importance of the role of morals and ethics in peer relations and in the cycle of violence.
The important role of morality in the transgressive behavior which occurs within peer groups, such as bullying, has often been observed. However, little attention has been paid to this kind of violence in the initial stages of primary education. This study aims to analyze the attribution of moral emotions (self and other) to victims in different bullying types (verbal, physical, relational, and exclusion) and roles (aggressor and victim). An ad hoc questionnaire with supporting stick-figure cartoons was used. In total, 1150 schoolchildren between the ages of 6 and 11 years took part in the study (50.3% girls). The results showed that over 80% of schoolchildren had been involved in any type of aggressive behavior, and that there were significant differences by gender, year, and involvement in self- and other-attributed moral emotions. Aggressors showed less shame in general. In self-attribution situations, there was a greater indifference in aggressors. Victims had less shame and greater indifference in self-attributions for verbal and physical aggression. Girls recognized higher percentages of guilt in victims. The main moral emotion in the first stage was shame. This tendency changed to guilt as the children got older in both situations. Results support the need for the study of moral emotions development of victims and aggressors. How the experience of being involved in bullying biases the moral interpretation toward from the feelings of the victim is discussed.
Moral disengagement and empathy have been linked to aggression in traditional bullying. A number of longitudinal studies have focused on how these variables predict aggressive behavior within the dynamics of bullying. However, no conclusive results have been produced as to whether aggressive behavior in bullying can predict lower levels of empathy, and to date, no studies have explored in depth the mediating role of moral disengagement strategies in this relationship, which is the aim of this study. A total of 1,810 students (51.0% girls; Mage = 14.50; SD = 1.05) completed a survey in three waves at 6-month intervals. The results showed that aggressive behavior in bullying at Time 1 was inversely related to affective and cognitive empathy at Time 3. Minimization of responsibility, distortion of consequences and dehumanizing mediated in the aggressive behavior exhibited by the bullying aggressors and in cognitive empathy, while cognitive restructuring and the distortion of consequences mediated in affective empathy. We discuss the impact on moral and emotional sensitivity of the continued aggression occurring in the interpersonal dynamics of bullying, as well as the relationship between certain strategies of moral disengagement and the different types of empathy. We also comment on the need to design intervention programs to address the lowering of moral criteria and empathy in young people and adolescents involved in traditional bullying.
The internet is an area where young people establish relationships and develop socially, emotionally and morally, but it also gives rise to certain forms of online behaviour, such as cybergossip, which are associated with cyberaggression and other risky behaviour. The aims of this study were to verify whether a longitudinal association exists between cybergossip and cyberaggression, and to discover which mechanisms of moral disengagement may mediate this relationship. The final sample consisted of 1392 students (50% girls; Mage = 13.47; SD = 0.77), who were surveyed in a three-wave longitudinal study at six-month intervals. The results obtained confirmed a direct, positive relationship between cybergossip, subsequent cyberaggression and the mediation exerted by cognitive restructuring in this transition. We discuss the importance of recognizing and detecting the fine distinction between online gossip and cyberaggression with the intention of doing harm, and focus on the justifications used by young people to normalize online bullying. To sum up, there is a clear need to encourage ethical, responsible behaviour in online interactions in order to achieve well-balanced, more sustainable relationships in classrooms.
Psicología Educativa (2019) 25(2) 77-90 Psicología Educativa h t t p s : / / j o u r n a l s. c o p m a d r i d. o rg / p s e d Correspondencia: email@example.com. (D. Falla).El acoso escolar continúa siendo uno de los grandes problemas de convivencia en los centros educativos. Este tipo de violencia horizontal, ejercida en el marco social de los iguales se ha definido como una agresión injustificada que un escolar, en solitario o en grupo, ejerce sobre otro, sin que este último tenga suficientes recursos psicológicos para parar la agresión o enfrentarse a ella de forma que se detenga. Es pues una agresión repetida en el tiempo, intencional e inmoral (Olweus, 1998;Ortega-Ruiz, 2010). Se han descrito consecuencias perniciosas en todos los órdenes de la vida personal y social de los chicos y chicas que se ven envueltos en estos problemas, ya que no es un hecho puntual, sino que al prolongarse en el tiempo tiene efectos muy negativos también para la salud mental de los implicados (Hellfeldt, Gill y Johansson, 2018).Numerosos estudios han evidenciado que los estudiantes con necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo (NEAE) son especialmente vulnerables a este tipo de fenómenos, convirtiéndose en objetivo del maltrato de compañeros crueles que aprovechan lo que interpretan como debilidades sociales de estos compañeros; es decir los escolares con NEAE se constituyen como un grupo en riesgo a este respecto (Martos y del Rey, 2013;McLaughlin, Byers y Vaughn, 2010). En esta línea se pueden encontrar trabajos específicos con escolares con discapacidad intelectual (Glumbic y Žuni -Pavlovi , 2010; Maïano, Los escolares con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) presentan dificultades en la interacción y comunicación social y rigidez cognitiva y de ejecución que los hace especialmente vulnerables al bullying; sin embargo, la investigación ha sido menos profusa. El propósito del presente trabajo es revisar y considerar los estudios más recientes sobre TEA y acoso escolar. El método utilizado ha seguido las directrices de la declaración PRISMA. La muestra final la conforman 29 artículos que revelan que estos estudios se han realizado con muestras inferiores a 450 escolares con TEA. Asimismo, se señala que existen discrepancias sobre la comprensión que tienen del acoso y los factores que lo predicen, así como que la prevalencia de bullying es superior a la publicada para los escolares normativos. Los resultados se discuten en comparación con revisiones previas y se plantean nuevos retos para el diseño de programas efectivos de intervención psicoeducativa específicos con este alumnado. Students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and victims of bullying: A systematic reviewA B S T R A C T School children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present difficulties in the interaction and social communication and cognitive rigidity and execution that make them especially vulnerable to bullying; however, research has been less profuse. The purpose of this paper is to review and consider the most recent studies on ASD and bullying. T...
Research into risky online behaviour among children and adolescents is on the rise, with more studies being conducted into the factors which can influence this phenomenon, above all in relation to school and family life. In the latter sphere, one relevant factor is the degree of genuine trust children have in their parents when using the Internet. The main objective of this study is to verify the effects of child disclosure about cyberaggression, in addition to the mediating role of problematic Internet use and cybergossip, and the moderating role of gender and age. A total of 866 primary school children (53% girls) between 10 and 13 years old (M=11.21; SD=0.90) were surveyed using self-reporting. The data processing followed a moderated serial mediation model using “Process”. The results revealed the effects of child disclosure about cyberaggression and the mediation of problematic Internet use and cybergossip. Unlike gender, age moderated the effects of the mediation model. The results highlight the need to foster a climate of trust and communication in the family environment to reduce involvement in risky online behaviour, in which children feel understood and supported by their parents, which in turn encourages open communication about Internet use. La investigación sobre ciberconductas de riesgo infantil y juvenil se abre paso con estudios sobre factores que puedan influir en estos fenómenos, entre los que se destacan los relacionados con la convivencia escolar y familiar. En esta última, es relevante el nivel de confianza espontánea del hijo hacia su progenitor en el uso Internet. El objetivo de este trabajo es comprobar el efecto de la revelación filial en la ciberagresión, así como el rol mediador del uso problemático de Internet y el cibercotilleo, y el rol moderador del sexo y la edad. Un total de 866 escolares de primaria (53% chicas) de entre 10 y 13 años (M=11,21; D.T.=0,90) fueron encuestados mediante el uso de autoinformes. El tratamiento de datos siguió un modelo de mediación serial moderada a través de «Process». Los resultados evidenciaron los efectos de la revelación filial sobre la ciberagresión, así como la mediación del uso problemático de Internet y el cibercotilleo. A diferencia del sexo, la edad moderó los efectos del modelo de mediación. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de establecer un clima de confianza y comunicación en el entorno familiar para disminuir la implicación en las ciberconductas de riesgo, donde los menores se sientan comprendidos y apoyados por los progenitores, facilitando la comunicación espontánea sobre el uso de Internet.
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