The association between type 1 Gaucher disease and PD has been reported in the literature. The clinical picture is characterized by the predominance of bilateral akinetic-rigid signs and poor response to levodopa therapy. The authors describe four patients (two siblings) with type 1 Gaucher disease presenting with the following signs of typical PD: asymmetric onset of rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia, and a favorable response to Parkinson therapies.
For paediatric patients with Gaucher disease, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has the potential to prevent the development of serious, irreversible skeletal complications. Analysis of skeletal data for paediatric patients receiving ERT must take into account the pubertal growth spurt and developmental changes in bone marrow composition. In a study conducted at the Burlo Garofolo Institute in Trieste, Italy, 10 paediatric patients have received ERT, and data are available for 3-9 years of follow-up. ERT was associated with a significant increase in the mean lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) Z score after 2 years of treatment (p=0.003). Skeletal growth rates increased among patients exhibiting growth delays. At the Gaucher Disease Treatment Center in Cincinnati, OH, USA, a total of 11 paediatric patients have been followed for 2 years or more of ERT. Of these 11 patients, 6 have demonstrated significant increases in lumbar BMD after 2 years of ERT; these patients tended to have lower BMD Z scores at the start of ERT. At the Children's Hospital of the Johannes-Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, 7 children with type 1 Gaucher disease presented with reduced BMD in the distal ulna, and after 18-24 months of ERT, these patients demonstrated increases in BMD at this site. The patients exhibiting growth retardation experienced growth acceleration during treatment. These studies suggest that ERT improves BMD and growth rates in paediatric patients with Gaucher disease. ERT in paediatric patients may have the potential to prevent serious skeletal complications such as fractures and vertebral compression later in life.
Glycogenosis type 2 is an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. Different phenotypes are recognized. The authors describe two children affected by the late infantile form; both presented terminal hyperthermia not caused by infections. Autopsy performed in one case showed diffuse glycogen storage in the CNS neurons. In light of current interest in enzyme replacement therapy, this finding casts some doubt on how effective enzyme replacement therapy will be unless it can be targeted directly into the CNS.
Bone involvement is one of the most disabling aspects of type I Gaucher disease and its pathophysiology is still not well understood. As an invasive procedure, bone biopsies are not appropriate in a large population study. The development of sensitive bone resorption and formation tests have allowed the authors to study bone metabolism in a noninvasive manner in a group of type 1 Gaucher patients. Ten type I Gaucher adult patients with mild-to-severe bone disease were evaluated. Bone mineral density and markers of bone formation (total alkaline phosphatase and isoenzymes, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, osteocalcin) and resorption (carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen, urinary hydroxyproline, free-deoxypyridinoline and calcium) were measured in patients and in a control group, matched for sex and age. In Gaucher patients, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), a bone formation index, was significantly lower compared with normal subjects (mean 101.17 ng/ml vs 140.75 ng/ml, P = 0.038), and analysis of bone resorption indexes showed a significant increase (mean 4.24 ng/ml vs 2.87 ng/ml, P = 0.012) of serum carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). No significant differences were observed in osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and urinary hydroxyproline. Bone mineral density revealed osteopenia in six patients, with a mean Z-score of ?1.04. It was not possible to show a relationship between sex, splenectomy status, age, weight, spleen, and liver volume and bone density, expressed as a Z-score nor a correlation between Z score and severity of skeletal disease. Results have shown a predominance of the resorption phase in the bone metabolism of Gaucher patients. These markers could be useful in monitoring the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on Gaucher disease skeletal involvement.
The search for new microbial strains that are able to withstand inhibitors released from hemicellulosic hydrolysis and are also still able to convert sugars in ethanol/xylitol is highly desirable. A yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice and identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii was evaluated for the ability to grow and ferment pentoses in synthetic media and in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. The yeast grew in xylose, arabinose and glucose at the same rate at an initial medium pH of 5.5. At pH 4.5, the yeast grew more slowly in arabinose. There was no sugar exhaustion within 60 h. At higher xylose concentrations with a higher initial cell concentration, sugar was exhausted within 96 h at pH 4.5. An increase of 350 % in biomass was obtained in detoxified hydrolysates, whereas supplementation with 3 g/L yeast extract increased biomass production by approximately 40 %. Ethanol and xylitol were produced more significantly in supplemented hydrolysates regardless of detoxification. Xylose consumption was enhanced in supplemented hydrolysates and arabinose was consumed only when xylose and glucose were no longer available. Supplementation had a greater impact on ethanol yield and productivity than detoxification; however, the product yields obtained in the present study are still much lower when compared to other yeast species in bagasse hydrolysate. By the other hand, the fermentation of both xylose and arabinose and capability of withstanding inhibitors are important characteristics of the strain assayed.
Dogs infected with Leishmania infantum have a reduced number of T lymphocytes. PD-1 (Programmed cell death 1) a new member of the B7-CD28 family that is expressed by immune cells, and its binding to PD-L1 (CD274) or PD-L2 (CD273) induces the deactivation or apoptosis of T cells. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of PD-1 and its ligands, as well as blocking in the induction of apoptosis in T lymphocytes, TNF-α, IL-4 and nitric oxide production by leucokocytes from PBMC and spleen and the parasite load in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Our results showed that the expression of PD1 and its ligands was increased in CD3(+) T cells and CD21(+) B lymphocytes within the peripheral blood and splenic mononuclear cells of dogs with VL. In peripheral blood monocytes, only PD-1 ligands exhibited increased expression; however, in spleen macrophages, increased expression of both PD-1 and its ligands was observed. Levels of apoptosis in peripheral blood and splenic T lymphocytes were higher in dogs with VL compared to healthy dogs. Blocking monoclonal antibodies to PD-1 and its ligands in the culture of mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood and spleen decreased the amount of CD3(+) T lymphocyte apoptosis. The concentration of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-4 increased in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with a blocking monoclonal antibody against PD-1. The TNF-α concentration increased in the culture supernatants of splenic cells following all treatments with antibodies blocking PD-1 and its ligands; however, the amount of IL-4 increased only in the presence of a PD-1 blocking agent. Treatment with a PD-1 blocking monoclonal antibody in the mononuclear peripheral blood of dogs with VL reduced the parasite burden while increased TNF-α. We conclude that in canine visceral leishmaniasis, PD-1 and its ligands are involved in the induction of T lymphocyte apoptosis and in regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-4, as well as the parasitic load.
Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. Because Leishmania can adapt to new hosts or vectors, knowledge concerning the current etiological agent in dogs is important in endemic areas. This study aimed to identify the Leishmania species detected in 103 samples of peripheral blood from dogs that were naturally infected with these protozoa. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was determined through parasitological examination, the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Leishmania species were identified by means of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The samples were subjected to PCR using oligonucleotide primers that amplify the intergenic region ITS1 of the rRNA gene in order to identify the species. The amplified DNA was digested using the restriction enzyme HaeIII. A restriction profile identical to L. amazonensis was shown in 77/103 samples and the profile was similar to L. infantum in 17/103. However, a mixed profile was shown in 9/103 samples, which impeded species identification. In conclusion, the infection in these dogs was predominantly due to L. amazonensis, thus indicating that diagnosing of cases of canine leishmaniasis needs to be reexamined, since the causative agent identified is not restricted to L. infantum.
We analyzed Niemann-Pick type C disease 1 (NPC1) gene in 12 patients with Niemann-Pick type C disease by sequencing both cDNA obtained from fibroblasts and genomic DNA. All the patients were compound heterozygotes. We found 15 mutations, eight of which previously unreported. The comparison of cDNA and genomic DNA revealed discrepancies in some subjects. In two unrelated patients carrying the same mutations (P474L and nt 2972del2) only one mutant allele (P474L), was expressed in fibroblasts. The mRNA corresponding to the other allele was not detected even in cells incubated with cycloheximide. The promoter variants ( ؊ 1026T/G and ؊ 1186T/C or ؊ 238 C/G), found to be in linkage with 2972del2 allele do not explain the lack of expression of this allele, as they were also found in control subjects. In another patient, (N1156S/Q922X) the N1156S allele was expressed in fibroblasts while the expression of the other allele was hardly detectable. In a fourth patient cDNA analysis revealed a point mutation in exon 20 (P1007A) and a 56 nt deletion in exon 22 leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon. The first mutation was confirmed in genomic DNA; the second turned out to be a T → G transversion in exon 22, predicted to cause a missense mutation (V1141G). In fact, this transversion generates a donor splice site in exon 22, which causes an abnormal pre-mRNA splicing leading to a partial deletion of this exon. In some NPC patients, therefore, the comparison between cDNA and genomic DNA may reveal an unexpected expression of some mutant alleles of NPC1
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.