Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive malignant tumor with high
To review diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Literature review using web databases Medline/PubMed.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common complication of hepatic cirrhosis.
Chronic viral hepatitis B and C also constitute as risk factors for its
development. In patients with cirrhosis, hepatocelular carcinoma usually
rises upon malignant transformation of a dysplastic regenerative nodule.
Differential diagnosis with other liver tumors is obtained through computed
tomography scan with intravenous contrast. Magnetic resonance may be helpful
in some instances. The only potentially curative treatment for
hepatocellular carcinoma is tumor resection, which may be performed through
partial liver resection or liver transplantation. Only 15% of all
hepatocellular carcinomas are amenable to operative treatment. Patients with
Child C liver cirrhosis are not amenable to partial liver resections. The
only curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with Child
C cirrhosis is liver transplantation. In most countries, only patients with
hepatocellular carcinoma under Milan Criteria are considered candidates to a
Hepatocellular carcinoma is potentially curable if discovered in its initial
stages. Medical staff should be familiar with strategies for early diagnosis
and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma as a way to decrease mortality
associated with this malignant neoplasm.
Liver transplant (LT) is the primary treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. About 25000 LTs are performed annually in the world. The potential for intraoperative bleeding is quite variable. However, massive bleeding is common and requires blood transfusion. Allogeneic blood transfusion has an immunosuppressive effect and an impact on recipient survival, in addition to the risk of transmission of viral infections and transfusion errors, among others. Techniques to prevent excessive bleeding or to use autologous blood have been proposed to minimize the negative effects of allogeneic blood transfusion. Intraoperative reinfusion of autologous blood is possible through previous self-donation or blood collected during the operation. However, LT does not normally allow autologous transfusion by prior self-donation. Hence, using autologous blood collected intraoperatively is the most feasible option. The use of intraoperative blood salvage autotransfusion (IBSA) minimizes the perioperative use of allogeneic blood, preventing negative transfusion effects without negatively impacting other clinical outcomes. The use of IBSA in patients with cancer is still a matter of debate due to the theoretical risk of reinfusion of tumor cells. However, studies have demonstrated the safety of IBSA in several surgical procedures, including LT for hepatocellular carcinoma. Considering the literature available to date, we can state that IBSA should be routinely used in LT, both in patients with cancer and in patients with benign diseases.
Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a complication of end stage liver disease (ESLD) and is manifested by severe hypoxemia, which usually responds to liver transplantation (LT). As compared to patients undergoing LT for other etiologies, patients with HPS present an increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. There is no effective treatment for patients whose hypoxemia does not respond to LT. This subset of patients is at a highly increased risk of death. There are very few reports on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in this setting with rapid response. However, there is no prior report of ECMO utilization for longer than 4 weeks. We present the case of a 17 year-old male patient who underwent LT for ESLD secondary to chronic portal vein thrombosis and HPS. He received a liver from a deceased donor and presented with severe HPS after LT, requiring ECMO support for 67 days. The patient was discharged home and is breathing in ambient air. He is currently asymptomatic and has a normal liver function.
This clinical scenario illustrates that subclinical celiac disease may be an underdiagnosed cause of malabsorption after major upper gastrointestinal surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diarrhea after pancreatoduodenectomy.
Primary extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors (E-GIST) of the liver are rare. The clinical presentation may range from asymptomatic to bleeding or manifestations of mass effect. Oncologic surgery followed by adjuvant therapy with imatinib is the standard of care. However, under specific circumstances, a cytoreductive approach may represent a therapeutic option. We describe herein the case of an 84-year-old woman who presented with a tender, protruding epigastric mass. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large, heterogeneous mass located across segments III, IV, V, and VIII of the liver. The initial approach was transarterial embolization of the tumor, which elicited no appreciable response. Considering the large size and central location of the tumor and the advanced age of the patient, non-anatomic complete resection was indicated. Due to substantial intraoperative bleeding and hemodynamic instability, only a near-complete resection could be achieved. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of primary E-GIST of the liver. Considering the risk/benefit ratio for therapeutic options, debulking surgery may represent a strategy to control pain and prolong survival.
Here, we present a case report of a patient diagnosed with E-GIST primary of the liver, which was indicated a cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant therapy with imatinib.
E-GIST primary of the liver is a rare conditional, the treatment is with systemic therapy and total resection surgery. However, a cytoreductive surgery will be necessary when a complete resection is no possible.
Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Results: Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Conclusions: Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients.
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