Nucleotide sequences of two regions of the genomes of 11 yellow fever virus (YFV) samples isolated from monkeys or humans with symptomatic yellow fever (YF) in Brazil in 2000, 2004, and 2008 were determined with the objective of establishing the genotypes and studying the genetic variation. Results of the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences generated from strains from 2004 and 2008 formed a new subclade within the clade 1 of the South American genotype I. The new subgroup is here designated as 1E. Sequences of YFV strains recovered in 2000 belong to the subclade 1D, which comprises previously characterized YFV strains from Brazil. Molecular dating analyses suggested that the new subclade 1E started diversifying from 1D about 1975 and that the most recent 2004-2008 isolates arose about 1985.
Since 2000, the expansion of Sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF) has been observed in the southeast of Brazil, being detected in areas considered silent for decades. Epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs) are considered sentinel events for the detection of human cases. It is important to report epizootic events that could have impact on the conservation status of susceptible species. We describe the epizootics in NHPs, notified in state of São Paulo, Brazil, between September 2008 to August 2009. Ninety-one epizootic events, involving 147 animals, were reported in 36 counties. Samples were obtained from 65 animals (44.2%). Most of the epizootics (46.6%) were reported between March and April, the same period during which human cases of YF occurred in the state. Biological samples were collected from animals found dead and were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, in São Paulo. Two samples, collected in two counties without an indication for YF vaccination, were positive for the virus. Another 48 animals were associated with YF by clinical-epidemiological linkage with laboratory confirmed cases. Because the disease in human and NHPs occurred in the same period, the detection of the virus in NHPs did not work as sentinel, but aided in the delineation of new areas of risk.
METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the Southwestern region of the state from February to April 2009. Suspected and confirmed cases in humans and in non-human primates were evaluated. Entomological investigation in sylvatic environment involved capture at ground level and in the tree canopy to identify species and detect natural infections. Control measures were performed in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti. Vaccination was directed at residents living in areas with confirmed viral circulation and also at nearby cities according to national recommendation.
RESULTS:Twenty-eight human cases were confirmed (39.3% case fatality rate) in rural areas of Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré and Buri. The deaths of 56 nonhuman primates were also reported, 91.4% were Allouatta sp. Epizootics was confirmed in two non-human primates in the cities of Itapetininga and Buri. A total of 1,782 mosquitoes were collected, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Hg. janthinomys/capricornii, and Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus and Sa. undosus. Yellow fever virus was isolated from a group of Hg. Leucocelaenus from Buri. Vaccination was carried out in 49 cities, with a total of 1,018,705 doses. Nine serious post-vaccination adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSIONS:The cases occurred between February and April 2009 in areas with no recorded yellow fever virus circulation in over 60 years. The outbreak region occurred outside the original recommended vaccination area with a high percentage of susceptible population. The fast adoption of control measures interrupted the human transmission within a month and the confirmation of viral circulation in humans, monkeys and mosquitoes. The results allowed the identification of new areas of viral circulation but further studies are required to clarify the dynamics of the spread of this disease.
SUMMARYAfter detecting the death of Howlers monkeys (genus Alouatta) and isolation of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Buri county, São Paulo, Brazil, an entomological research study in the field was started. A YFV strain was isolated from newborn Swiss mice and cultured cells of Aedes albopictus -C6/36, from a pool of six Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Hg. leucocelaenus) mosquitoes (Dyar & Shannon) collected at the study site. Virus RNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The MCC Tree generated showed that the isolated strain is related to the South American I genotype, in a monophyletic clade containing isolates from recent 2008-2010 epidemics and epizootics in Brazil. Statistical analysis commonly used were calculated to characterize the sample in relation to diversity and dominance and indicated a pattern of dominance of one or a few species. Hg. leucocelaenus was found infected in Rio Grande do Sul State as well. In São Paulo State, this is the first detection of YFV in Hg. leucocelaenus.
We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the
state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed,
including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the
State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five
individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a
mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who
should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to
calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining,
vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and
the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions.
Conclusion:In conclusion, this study for the first time identified Hsp70 as the receptor for JEV on Neuro2a cells. Further, this study illustrated that apoptosis is one of the mechanisms of JEV induced damage of infected neuronal cells.
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