Aims Population surveys of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity conducted in Samoa over three decades have used varying methodologies and definitions. This study standardizes measures, and trends of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity for 1978-2013 are projected to 2020 for adults aged 25-64 years.Methods Unit records from eight surveys (n = 12 516) were adjusted to the previous census for Division of residence, sex and age to improve national representativeness. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l and/or on medication. Obesity is defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 . Random effects meta-regression was employed to assess time trends following logit transformation. Poisson regression from strata was used to assess the effects of mean BMI changes on Type 2 diabetes mellitus period trends.Results Over 1978-2013, Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence increased from 1.2% to 19.6% in men (2.3% per 5 years), and from 2.2% to 19.5% in women (2.2% per 5 years). Obesity prevalence increased from 27.7% to 53.1% in men (3.6% per 5 years) and from 44.4% to 76.7% (4.5% per 5 years) in women. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity prevalences increased in all age groups. From period trends, Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in 2020 is projected to be 26% in men and women. Projected obesity prevalence is projected to be 59% in men and 81% in women. Type 2 diabetes mellitus period trends attributable to BMI increase are estimated as 31% (men) and 16% (women), after adjusting for age.Conclusion This is the first study to produce trends of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in Samoa based on standardized data from population surveys. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is equally prevalent in both sexes, and obesity is widespread. Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in Samoa is likely to continue to increase in the near future.
Background: No systematic comparison has been conducted in Fiji using all suitable surveys of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity prevalence after standardizing methodology and definitions. Methods: Unit records from six surveys of Fiji adults were variously adjusted for age, ethnicity (Fiji Melanesians, i-Taukei, and Fijians of Asian Indian descent [Indians]) and urban-rural by sex to previous censuses. Trends were assessed using meta-regression (random effect models) and estimates projected to 2020. Poisson regression of strata was used to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) increases on T2DM period trends. Results: Over 1980-2011, T2DM prevalence increased in i-Taukei men (3.2% to 11.1%; 1.32%/5 years) and women (5.3% to 13.6%; 1.40%/5 years) and Indian men (11.1% to 17.9%; 1.24%/5 years) and women (11.2% to 19.9%; 1.71%/5 years). Projected T2DM prevalence in 2020 is 13.3% and 16.7% in i-Taukei men and women, and 23.4% and 24.1% in Indian men and women, respectively. Obesity prevalence increased in i-Taukei men (12.6% to 28.9%; 2.99%/5 years) and women (30.1% to 52.9%; 3.84%/5 years) and in Indian men (2.8% to 9.4%; 1.21%/5 years) and women (13.2% to 26.6%; 2.61%/ 5 years). Projected obesity prevalence in 2020 is 34.0% and 60.0% in i-Taukei and women, and 11.4% and 31.0% in Indian men and women, respectively. After age-adjustment, an estimated 27%, 25%, 16% and 18% of the T2DM period trend is attributable to BMI in i-Taukei men and women and Indian men and women, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of T2DM in Fiji is projected to continue increasing, driven by rising obesity, with consequences for premature mortality and life expectancy.
Disparate population surveys of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been conducted in Tonga for 4 decades. This study standardizes these surveys to enable assessment of T2DM and obesity trends in Tongans aged 25 to 64 years over 1973-2012, and projects T2DM prevalence to 2020 based on demographic and population weight changes. Eight surveys were standardized to the nearest census to produce nationally representative estimates. Linear period trends and prevalence projections to 2020 were produced using random-effects meta-regression. Over 1973-2012, T2DM prevalence increased from 5.2% to 19.0% (1.9%/5 years) and obesity prevalence from 56.0% to 70.2% (2.7%/5 years). T2DM prevalence period projection to 2020 is 22.3%. Based on modeling using body mass index, T2DM prevalence in 2020 could have been 12.7% and 16.8% in 2020 had mean population weight been 1 to 4 kg lower than 2012 levels.
Since 1950, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a leading cause of mortality in Sri Lanka, especially in men. In 2014, a survey in Kalutara to assess CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk factors in adults aged 25 to 64 years (n = 1011), and associations with sex and socioeconomic status (SES), found similar CVD risk factors in both sexes, except for daily tobacco smoking at 19% in men and nil in women, and higher body mass index (BMI) in women than men. With increasing SES in men, there were significant linear increases in mean BMI, waist circumference, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean fasting plasma glucose, and T2DM prevalence, but decreases in tobacco smoking. Whereas in women higher SES was associated with a significant increase in mean BMI, but a significant decrease in hypertension prevalence. Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor explaining higher CVD mortality in men compared with women.
Comparison of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults aged 25–64 years in selected Pacific Island countries using whole blood and plasma glucose cut‐off points. Unit records of STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) surveys obtained from Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga Ministries of Health; T2DM prevalence recalculated using whole blood and plasma cut‐off points. Shaded bars indicate T2DM prevalence based on correct glucose cut‐off points for the glucose meter used (fasting blood glucose [FBG] ≥6.1 mmol/L for early surveys1,3,5; fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥7.0 mmol/L for later surveys),2,4,6 whereas open bars show T2DM prevalence based on incorrect glucose cut‐off points (FPG ≥6.1 mmol/L for later surveys).2,4,6
Objectives:To analyse trends during 1980–2011 in hypertension prevalence and SBP/DBP by sex in Fiji Melanesian (i-Taukei) and Indian adults aged 25–64 years; and to assess effects of BMI.Methods:Unit record data from five population-based surveys were included (n = 14 191). Surveys were adjusted to the nearest previous census to improve national representativeness. Hypertension was defined as SBP at least 140 mmHg and/or DBP at least 90 mmHg and/or on medication for hypertension. Regression (Poisson and linear) was used to assess period trends.Results:Over 1980–2011 hypertension prevalence (%) and mean blood pressure (BP) (SBP/DBP mmHg) increased significantly (P < 0.001) in both sexes and ethnicities. Increases in hypertension were: from 16.2 to 41.3% in i-Taukei men (mean BP from 122/73 to 135/81); from 20.5 to 37.8% in Indian men (mean BP from 122/74 to 133/81); from 25.9 to 36.9% in i-Taukei women (mean BP from 126/76 to 132/81); and from 17.6 to 33.1% in Indian women (mean BP 117/71 to 130/81). The age-adjusted trend in hypertension and mean BP (over 32 years) declined after adjusting for BMI, with effects of obesity greater in women than men, and in Indians than i-Taukei. BMI explained 45% of the age-adjusted increase in DBP over the period in Indians (both sexes), and 16% (men) and 38% (women) in i-Taukei.Conclusion:Significant increases have occurred in hypertension prevalence and SBP/DBP in both sexes and ethnicities of Fiji during 1980–2011 with no indication of decline, contributing to significant premature mortality from cardiovascular disease.
Methods: The survey was conducted among 11 110 students from 75 schools in Indonesia using a self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore associations between sexual intercourse and socio-demographic variables, substance use, mental distress, and protective factors. Results: Overall, 5.3% of students reported having ever had sex (6.9% of boys and 3.8% of girls). Of students who engaged in sexual intercourse, 72.7% of boys and 90.3% of girls had an early sexual debut (before reaching the age of 15) and around 60% had multiple sex partners. Sexual intercourse was associated with gender, school grade, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, suicidal ideation, truancy, peer support, and parental supervision. Conclusions: These findings indicate a pressing need to develop more comprehensive sexual health education in the national curriculum. An effective strategy should also address other risky behaviours.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.