ObjectiveAsthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy about the association between asthma and a child's mental health, since the pathways through which this relationship is established are complex and not well researched. This study aims to investigate whether behavior problems are associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a large urban center in Latin America.MethodsIt is a cross-section study of 869 children between 6 and 12 years old, residents of Salvador, Brazil. The International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) instrument was used to evaluate prevalence of asthma symptoms. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was employed to evaluate behavioral problems.Results19.26% (n = 212) of the children presented symptoms of asthma. 35% were classified as having clinical behavioral problems. Poisson's robust regression model demonstrated a statistically significant association between the presence of behavioral problems and asthma symptoms occurrence (PR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10–1.85).ConclusionThese results suggest an association between behavioral problems and pediatric asthma, and support the inclusion of mental health care in the provision of services for asthma morbidity.
Objective: To analyze the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) assessed with the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), using the established cutoff point, and comparing it with the results of a joint correspondence factor analysis (CFA) and cluster analysis and of a latent class analysis (LCA). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban sample of 1,095 women aged 19 to 55 years. Joint CFA-cluster analysis and LCA were used. Results: We found a high prevalence of CMD, regardless of classification method (37.6% when using the cutoff point; 44.4% and 52% for LCA and joint CFA-cluster, respectively). The alternative analysis strategies describe the cases more efficiently when compared to the traditional cutoff method, especially regarding more severe symptoms. Both alternative strategies also provide a description of the SRQ-20 dimensions in their particularities, which may be useful for the planning and implementation of specific actions in a given population. Conclusion: The SRQ-20 cutoff point seems to underestimate the magnitude of CMD among women. The alternative methods of analysis presented herein highlight the different possibilities of using this important instrument of screening for mental health.
Although the practice of recreational feeding of fish by tourists is widespread within marine protected areas (MPAs), the ecological consequences of this activity have received little attention. This research aimed to investigate the influence of artificial feeding on reef fish communities of two Brazilian MPAs. Visual censuses were performed in areas not visited by tourists, in order to characterize the natural community structure of each reef system. In the Maracajaú reefs, the effect of artificial feeding was assessed below a moored floating dock found in the area. Stationary visual censuses were carried out before, during and after the fish feeding activity. In the Maragogi reefs, areas with presence and absence of tourism visitation were established. Transect methodology was employed in each of these areas. On both MPAs, fish feeding was a formal activity and occurred on a daily basis during the course of this study. Within the MPAs, 88 species belonging to 40 families were recorded. In Maracajaú, fish, shrimps and squids were provided by the tourists on the floating dock, which favoured mobile invertebrate feeders, whereas in Maragogi, animal ration and human food were used, causing aggregations of omnivores. Differences were observed in terms of abundance between before and after feeding in Maracajaú and between the control and impacted areas of Maragogi. The data are consistent with fish feeding leading to attraction of determined species, causing an increase in their abundance, also indicating that both the type of food and the extension of activity area are important factors determining the effects on fish communities.
As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25–63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04–2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07–3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34–5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00–3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence.
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