SummaryBackground and objectives Bariatric surgery (BS) may be associated with increased oxalate excretion and a higher risk of nephrolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate urinary abnormalities and responses to an acute oxalate load as an indirect assessment of the intestinal absorption of oxalate in this population.Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twenty-four-hour urine specimens were collected from 61 patients a median of 48 months after BS (post-BS) as well as from 30 morbidly obese (MO) participants; dietary information was obtained through 24-hour food recalls. An oral oxalate load test (OLT), consisting of 2-hour urine samples after overnight fasting and 2, 4, and 6 hours after consuming 375 mg of oxalate (spinach juice), was performed on 21 MO and 22 post-BS patients 12 months after BS. Ten post-BS patients also underwent OLT before surgery (pre-BS).Results There was a higher percentage of low urinary volume (,1.5 L/d) in post-BS versus MO (P,0.001). Hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria (P=0.13 and P=0.36, respectively) were more frequent in BS versus MO patients. The OLT showed intragroup (P,0.001 for all periods versus baseline) and intergroup differences (P,0.001 for post-BS versus MO; P=0.03for post-BS versus pre-BS). The total mean increment in oxaluria after 6 hours of load, expressed as area under the curve, was higher in both post-BS versus MO and in post-BS versus pre-BS participants (P,0.001 for both).Conclusions The mean oxaluric response to an oxalate load is markedly elevated in post-bariatric surgery patients, suggesting that increased intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate is a predisposing mechanism for enteric hyperoxaluria.
BackgroundNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent disease associated with abnormal liver tests that is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple macro vesicular steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis or liver carcinoma. Liver biopsy is the most precise test to differentiate NASH from other stages of NAFLD, but it is an invasive and expensive method. This study aimed to create a clinical laboratory score capable of identify individual with NASH in severely obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery.MethodsThe medical records from 66 patients submitted to gastroplasty were reviewed. Their chemistry profile, abdominal ultrasound (US) and liver biopsy done during the surgical procedure were analyzed. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to liver biopsy: Non-NASH group - those patients without NAFLD or with grade I, II or III steatosis; and NASH group - those with steatohepatitis or fibrosis. The t-test was used to compare each variable with normal distribution between NASH and Non-NASH groups. When comparing proportions of categorical variables, we used chi-square or z-test, where appropriate. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results83% of patients with obesity grades II or III showed NAFLD, and the majority was asymptomatic. Total Cholesterol (TC)≥200 mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥30, AST/ALT ratio (AAR)≤ 1, gammaglutaril-transferase (γGT)≥30 U/L and abdominal US, compatible with steatosis, showed association with NASH group. We proposed 2 scores: Complete score (TC, ALT, AAR, γGT and US) and the simplified score, where US was not included. The combination of biochemical and imaging results improved accuracy to 84.4% the recognition of NASH (sensitivity 70%, specificity 88.6%, NPV 91.2%, PPV 63. 6%).ConclusionAlterations in TC, ALT, AAR, γGT and US are related to the most risk for NASH. The combination of biochemical and imaging results improved accuracy to 84.4% the recognition of NASH. Additionally, negative final scores exclude the presence of an advanced illness. Using this score, the severity of fatty liver infiltration would be predicted without the risks associated with hepatic biopsy.
-Background -In Brazil, gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy among men and sixth among women. The cause is multivariate and the risks are well known. It has prognosis and treatment defined by the location and staging of the tumor and number of lymph nodes resected and involved. Aim -The Brazilian Consensus on Gastric Cancer promoted by ABCG was designed with the intention to issue guidelines that can guide medical professionals to care for patients with this disease. Methods -Were summarized and answered 43 questions reflecting consensus or not on diagnosis and treatment that may be used as guidance for its multidisciplinary approach. The method involved three steps. Initially, 56 digestive surgeons and related medical specialties met to formulate the questions that were sent to participants for answers on scientific evidence and personal experience. Summaries were presented, discussed and voted in plenary in two other meetings. They covered 53 questions involving: diagnosis and staging (six questions); surgical treatment (35 questions); chemotherapy and radiotherapy (seven questions) and anatomopathology, immunohistochemistry and perspective (five questions). It was considered consensus agreement on more than 70% of the votes in each item. Results -All the answers were presented and voted upon, and in 42 there was consensus. Conclusion -It could be developed consensus on most issues that come with the care of patients with gastric cancer and they can be transformed in guidelines. RESUMO
SummaryObjectives. Causes may be found in most cases of acute pancreatitis, however no etiology is found by clinical, biological and imaging investigations in 30% of these cases. Our objective was to evaluate results from endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosis of gallbladder microlithiasis in patients with unexplained (idiopathic) acute pancreatitis. MethOds. Thirty-six consecutive non-alcoholic patients with diagnoses of acute pancreatitis were studied over a five-year period. None of them showed signs of gallstones on transabdominal ultrasound or tomography. We performed EUS within one week of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis of gallbladder microlithiasis on EUS was based upon findings of hyperechoic signals of 0.5-3.0 mm, with or without acoustic shadowing. All patients (36 cases) underwent cholecystectomy, in accordance with indication from the attending physician or based upon EUS diagnosis. Results. Twenty-seven patients (75%) had microlithiasis confirmed by histology and nine did not (25%). EUS findings were positive in twenty-five. Two patients had acute cholecystitis diagnosed at EUS that was confirmed by surgical and histological findings. In two patients, EUS showed cholesterolosis and pathological analysis disclosed stones not detected by EUS. EUS diagnosed microlithiasis in four cases not confirmed by surgical treatment. In our study, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values to identify gallbladder microlithiasis (with 95% confidence interval) were 92.6% (74.2-98.7%), 55.6% (22.7-84.7%), 86.2% (67.4-95.5%) and 71.4% (30.3-94.9%), respectively. Overall EUS accuracy was 83.2%. cOnclusiOns. EUS is a very reliable procedure to diagnose gallbladder microlithiasis and should be used for the management of patients with unexplained acute pancreatitis. This procedure should be part of advanced endoscopic evaluation.
BackgroundObesity is a worldwide disease related to genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors, and it is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recently, obesity has been characterized by a low-grade inflammatory state known as inflammome indicated by chronic increases in circulating concentrations of inflammatory markers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of weight loss induced by surgery for obesity and weight-related diseases on pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory adipokine (adiponectin) levels, and on an adipose-derived hormone (leptin) in severely obese subjects.MethodsThis randomized, controlled trial involved 55 severe obese patients (50 women, age 18–63 years, and body mass index of 35.7–63 kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery (BS). Patients with a BMI > 65 kg/m2 and clinical and mental instability, or significant and unrealistic expectations of surgery were excluded. Blood samples were collected during the fasting period to analyze tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin, and leptin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsAt baseline, no significant difference was observed in the anthropometric, demographic, clinical characteristics and biochemistry and inflammatory markers between the control group (CG) and bariatric surgery group (BSG). The same finding was also observed when we compared the baseline variables to those at the 6-month follow-up in the CG. However, the same variables in the BSG group were significantly different between baseline and the 6-month follow-up after BS.ConclusionsWeight loss induced by surgery for obesity and weight-related diseases reduced the inflammome state in severely obese patients.
Background: Since the publication of the first Brazilian Consensus on Gastric Cancer (GC) in 2012 carried out by the Brazilian Gastric Cancer Association, new concepts on diagnosis, staging, treatment and follow-up have been incorporated. Aim: This new consensus is to promote an update to professionals working in the fight against GC and to provide guidelines for the management of patients with this condition. Methods: Fifty-nine experts answered 67 statements regarding the diagnosis, staging, treatment and prognosis of GC with five possible alternatives: 1) fully agree; 2) partially agree; 3) undecided; 4) disagree and 5) strongly disagree A consensus was adopted when at least 80% of the sum of the answers “fully agree” and “partially agree” was reached. This article presents only the responses of the participating experts. Comments on each statement, as well as a literature review, will be presented in future publications. Results: Of the 67 statements, there was consensus in 50 (74%). In 10 declarations, there was 100% agreement. Conclusion: The gastric cancer treatment has evolved considerably in recent years. This consensus gathers consolidated principles in the last decades, new knowledge acquired recently, as well as promising perspectives on the management of this disease.
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