To identify DNA of the main tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Recife (Brazil), polymerase chain reactions were carried out on blood samples of dogs treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco from March 2007 to June 2008. The detection of DNA was performed using specific primers. Amplicons were analyzed through electrophoresis and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the UPGMA method, revealing that the sequences were closely related to those of strains from other geographic regions. Among the 205 blood samples analyzed, 48.78% was positive for Anaplasma platys; 38.04% was positive for Ehrlichia canis; 7.31% was positive for Babesia canis vogeli; and 0.49% was positive for Hepatozoon canis and Mycoplasma haemocanis. Coinfection of two or three pathogens was found in 23.9% (49/205) of the dogs. The subspecies B. canis vogeli was identified. Infection by H. canis and M. haemocanis is reported for the first time in dogs in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil). The data indicate that the main tick-borne pathogens in dogs in this region are E. canis and/or A. platys, followed by B. canis vogeli.
Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax is an important cause of economic losses among feedlot cattle. These losses are related to the morbidity, mortality, reproductive issues and decreased production. It is known that the clinical signs observed in infections by this protozoon are similar to other hemoparasitosis, which difficult the diagnosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize an outbreak of trypanosomiasis caused by T. (D.) vivax in dairy cattle in the municipality of São Miguel Aleixo, state of Sergipe, Brazil. Blood samples from cattle (n = 15) presenting clinical signs compatible with trypanosomiasis were collected and parasitological and molecular evaluated. Among the samples analyzed, 34% (5/15) were positive from blood smears, 60% (9/15) from the buffy coat method and 80% (12/15) from the molecular method. The DNA sequence obtained (659 bp) showed 99% similarity to T. (D.) vivax sequences that are available in the GenBank database. The presence of this protozoon in cattle herds is a problem for producers. Diagnosing trypanosomiasis is problematic because its evolution is similar to that of other parasitic blood diseases. In addition, this is the first report of infection by T. (D.) vivax in cattle in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil.Keywords: Trypanosomiasis, parasitological diagnosis, molecular diagnosis. ResumoTrypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax é responsável por consideráveis perdas econômicas na bovinocultura. Estas perdas estão relacionados à morbidade, mortalidade, problemas reprodutivos e declínio na produção. Sabe-se que os sinais clínicos apresentados em infecções por este protozoário se assemelha a outras hemoparasitoses, dificultando muitas vezes o diagnóstico. Portanto, objetivou-se com este estudo detectar a ocorrência de T. (D.) vivax em bovinos leiteiros no município de São Miguel Aleixo, Estado de Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto, amostras de sangue (n = 15) foram coletadas e avaliadas através de métodos parasitológicos e moleculares. Do total das amostras analisadas, 34% (5/15) foram positivas no esfregaço sanguíneo, 60% (9/15) pelo método do Buffy Coat, enquanto na biologia molecular 80% (12/15) amplificaram um fragmento de DNA (659 pb) compatível com T. (D.) vivax (GenBank). Em conclusão a presença de T. (D.) vivax nos rebanhos bovinos caracteriza-se como um problema para os pecuaristas, como também para o diagnóstico, uma vez que essa tripanossomíase apresenta evolução semelhante a outras hemoparasitoses. Ademais, este é o primeiro relato de infecção por T. (D.) vivax em bovinos do estado de Sergipe, nordeste do Brasil.Palavras-chave: Tripanossomíase, diagnóstico parasitológico, diagnóstico molecular.
Post-mortem bacterial culture and specific biochemical tests are currently performed to characterize the etiologic agent of bovine tuberculosis. Cultures take up to 90 days to develop. A diagnosis by molecular tests such as PCR can provide fast and reliable results while significantly decreasing the time of confirmation. In the present study, a nested-PCR system, targeting rv2807, with conventional PCR followed by real-time PCR, was developed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) organisms directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. The sensitivity and specificity of the reactions were assessed with DNA samples extracted from tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other Actinomycetales species and DNA samples extracted directly from bovine and bubaline tissue homogenates. Regarding the analytical sensitivity, DNA of the M. bovis AN5 strain was detected up to 1.5 pg by nested-PCR, whereas DNA of M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain was detected up to 6.1 pg. The nested-PCR system showed 100% analytical specificity for MTC when tested with DNA of reference strains of non-tuberculous mycobacteria and closely-related Actinomycetales. A clinical sensitivity level of 76.7% was detected with tissues samples positive for MTC by means of the culture and conventional PCR. A clinical specificity of 100% was detected with DNA from tissue samples of cattle with negative results in the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. These cattle exhibited no visible lesions and were negative in the culture for MTC. The use of the nested-PCR assay to detect M. tuberculosis complex in tissue homogenates provided a rapid diagnosis of bovine and bubaline tuberculosis.
The aim of the present study was to quantify the parasite load of Leishmania infantum in dogs using real-time PCR (qPCR). Bone marrow, lymph node and spleen samples were taken from 24 dogs serologically positive for L. infantum that had been put down by the official epidemiological surveillance service. According to the clinical signs the dogs were classified as asymptomatic or symptomatic. After DNA extraction, the samples were subjected to qPCR to detect and quantify L. infantum DNA. Out of the 24 dogs, 12.5% (3/24) were classified as asymptomatic and 87.5% (21/24) as symptomatic. Real-time PCR detected L. infantum DNA in all the animals, in at least one biological sample. In particular, 100% of bone marrow and lymph node scored positive, whereas in spleen, the presence of DNA was detected in 95.9% (23/24). In addition, out of 24 animals, 15 were microscopically positive to amastigote forms of L. infantum in bone marrow. No statistical significant difference was found in the overall mean quantity of DNA among the different biological samples (P = 0.518). Considering each organ separately, there was 100% positivity in bone marrow and lymph nodes, while among the spleen samples, 95.9% (23/24) were positive. Regarding the different clinical groups, the overall mean parasite load varied significantly (P = 0.022). According to the results obtained, it was not possible determine which biological sample was most suitable tissue for the diagnosis, based only on the parasite load. Therefore, other characteristics such as convenience and easily of obtaining samples should be taken into consideration.Keywords: Leishmania, molecular, diagnosis, parasite load, dogs. ResumoO objetivo do presente estudo foi quantificar a carga parasitária de Leishmania infantum em cães pela técnica de PCR em tempo-real (qPCR). Amostras de medula óssea, linfonodo e baço foram obtidos de 24 cães sorologicamente positivos para L. infantum que foram submetidos à eutanásia pelo serviço de vigilância oficial. Segundo os sinais clínicos, os animais foram classificados em assintomáticos ou sintomáticos. Após extração de DNA, as amostras foram submetidas à qPCR para detecção e quantificação de DNA de L. infantum. Dos 24 cães, 12,5% (3/24) foram classificados como assintomáticos e 87,5% (21/24) como sintomáticos. A PCR em tempo real detectou DNA de L. infantum em 100% dos animais, em pelo menos uma amostra biológica. Considerando cada órgão isoladamente, foi observada uma positividade de 100% em medula óssea e linfonodo, já nas amostras de baço 95,9% (23/24) foram positivas. Não foi observada diferença estatística entre a quantidade média geral de DNA entre as diferentes amostras biológicas (P = 0,518). Considerando os diferentes grupos clínicos, a carga parasitária média geral variou significantemente (P = 0,022). De acordo com os resultados obtidos não foi possível eleger a mais apropriada amostra biológica para o diagnóstico, baseado apenas na carga parasitária. Portanto, outras características como a conveniência e a facilidade de obtenção...
Histopathological evaluation and parasite quantification (qPCR) in the male dog's genital system after natural infection... Ciência
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.
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