The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 (probiotic) on the performance and intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens (CP). One-day-old broiler chickens were assigned to 3 treatments with 8 replicate pens (50 birds/pen). The treatments were: non-infected control; infected control; and infected supplemented with probiotic (1 × 106 CFU/g of feed). On day of hatch, all birds were sprayed with a coccidia vaccine based on the manufacturer recommended dosage. On d 18–20 the infected birds were inoculated with CP via feed. Necrotic enteritis (NE) lesion score was performed on d 21. Digestive tract of 2 birds/pen was collected on d 21 to analyze the ileal and cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA sequencing. Performance was evaluated on d 28 and 42. On d 21, probiotic supplementation reduced (p < 0.001) the severity of NE related lesion versus infected control birds. On d 28, feed efficiency was improved (p < 0.001) in birds supplemented with probiotic versus infected control birds. On d 42, body weight gain (BW gain) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved (p < 0.001) in probiotic supplemented birds versus infected control birds. The diversity, composition and predictive function of the intestinal microbial digesta changed with the infection but the supplementation of probiotic reduced these variations. Therefore, dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 was beneficial in attenuating the negative effects of CP challenge on the performance and intestinal microbiota of broilers chickens.
The incidence of enteric infections in broiler chickens may increase worldwide due to mounting pressure to limit the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotics and ionophores for coccidia suppression/prevention in the diets of broilers. For this reason, we need expand our knowledge on the role that micro-minerals have in modulating the intestinal physiology, immunology, and microbiology of broiler chickens. There are issues associated with the use of high doses of some micro-minerals in the diets of animals, such as environmental contamination, bacterial resistance, and gizzard erosion. Therefore, there is a need to maximize the absorption of these minerals by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of birds when intestinal function may be compromised. Zinc is an essential micromineral required for growth, and influences intestinal development and/or regeneration during and after enteric disease. Two studies were conducted by our lab to determine the effects of Zn source in broilers under coccidia and Clostridium perfringens challenge. In the first study, Zn proteinate had beneficial effects on the performance of chickens challenged with coccidia plus C. perfringens by enhancing intestinal integrity and partially attenuating the inflammatory response. In the second study, Zn proteinate lowered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulated the ileal microbiota. Additionally, the poultry industry has used prophylactic concentrations of dietary Cu for its ability to improve feed conversion for a long time.Copper absorption occurs mainly in the duodenum of chickens and, therefore, injuries to the intestinal epithelium of duodenum would impair Cu absorption and decrease its tissue concentration. Although there is a lack of studies relating Mn supplementation and its different sources on the immune response against coccidiosis in poultry, it is likely that Mn is beneficial during enteric challenges due to its role in the production of mucopolysaccharides. Therefore, the proper evaluation of the role of minerals on mitigating the negative impact of coccidiosis in broilers must consider their properties in modulating the physiology, immunology, and the intestinal microbiota of the host during health and disease situation events.
The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer and exporter of beef in the country, but few studies of relevance have been conducted to evaluate the microbiological safety of its products. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) in export-approved beef from Mato Grosso and to characterize the isolates in terms of molecular properties and antimicrobial resistance. From a total of 50 samples analyzed, Listeria sp. was isolated in 18 (36% prevalence). Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed in 6 (12% prevalence). Among the serotype groups assessed by multiplex PCR, serotype 4 (4b, 4d or 4e) was the most prevalent. Although antibiotic resistance was not an issue, two strains isolated from different plants showed high resistance to sodium hypochlorite. Overall, this scenario causes concern because it puts at risk not only the Brazilian customer, but also the population of countries that import beef from Mato Grosso.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protected sodium butyrate (SB), and protected sodium butyrate plus essential oils (carvacrol and ginger; SBEO) on the cecal microbiota of broilers challenged with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens. Birds were assigned to 4 treatments (8 replicates pens of 58 birds/pen): unchallenged control; challenged control; challenged and supplemented with SB; challenged and supplemented with SBEO. On d 13, challenged birds were orally inoculated with ∼5,000 Eimeria maxima oocysts. On d 18-19, the same birds were exposed to Clostridium perfringens via drinking water (∼8 log CFU/ml). Cecal excreta was collected at d 12, 18, 21, and 28 for microbiota analysis through 16s rRNA sequencing using Illumina MiSeq platform and analyzed using QIIME v. 1.9.1 The cecal microbiota was analyzed over time within each experimental group. The inclusion of SB alone or in combination with EO contributed to larger variations in the cecal microbiota over time than the unsupplemented treatments, as shown by the diversity indices. The community structure and abundance of the cecal microbiota were significantly different across ages, especially in the groups supplemented with SB and SBEO. As shown in the PCoA analysis, the supplementation of SB led to a more stable microbial community and lower between-sample variability over time. In the unchallenged control birds, Ruminococcus decreased (p = 0.006), whereas Bacteroides and Clostridiales increased (p ≤ 0.02) as the birds aged. In the challenged control group, however, the frequency of Coprococcus and Blautia decreased as birds aged (p ≤ 0.01), and, Clostridiales did not increase. Supplementation of SB, but not SBEO, increased the frequency of Lactobacillus (p = 0.01) on d 12 compared to d 18 and d 28, and prevented the reduction in the frequency of Blautia as the birds aged. Nevertheless, supplementation Bortoluzzi et al. Necrotic Enteritis and Nutrition for Broilers of SB and SBEO contributed to unique changes in the predicted functions of the cecal microbiota over time, which was not observed in the unsupplemented birds. SB and SBEO modulated the diversity, composition, and predictive function of the cecal microbiota which may have lowered the negative impact of necrotic enteritis (NE).
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