Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent neurodevelopmental disorder that results from complex interactions of multiple genes and environmental risk and adversity factors. Some researchers have suggested a need for additional research into differing clinical presentations of ADHD for further classification. In this context, this study aimed to investigate whether increases in risk and adversity factors increase the severity of ADHD and the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. This is a naturalistic retrospective chart review exploratory study in 100 patients 16 years or older who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS, using the Mann–Whitney test for parametric data and the Chi-square and Kruskal–Wallis p value tests for non-parametric and categorical data. Qualitative data were tabulated and described. The study found that (1) the average number of comorbidities increases with the severity of ADHD, (2) the average number of risk and adversity factors increases with the severity of ADHD, (3) the number of risk and adversity factors were positively associated with the number of comorbidities, and (4) Level of education was negatively associated with the number of risk and adversity factors and the number of comorbidities. The implications of these findings are discussed, and future research in this important area is suggested.
Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has deeply altered social and working environments among health care workers. These health care workers are therefore at risk of additional psychosocial strain and ensuing metal health symptoms, which indirectly affects patient care. In this study, we aimed to assess the psychosocial and psychopathological impact of COVID-19 among acute care mental health and addictions staff. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional survey and contains a sample size of 60 mental health and addiction acute care workers recruited from within Nova Scotia Health Authority. The survey was constructed using the online survey system, Opinio, and consisted of three sections: demographic variables (gender, age group and profession); the DASS-21 Questionnaire (which provides dimensional measures of stress, anxiety and depression); and the MBI-HSS (MP) Questionnaire (which measures three dimensions of burnout—emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal achievement). Results: The majority of participants had at least one pathologic score on the DASS-21 and MBI-HSS (MP) sections (75.5% and 93.5%, respectively). The median severity on the DASS-21 and MBI-HSS (MP) were both moderate, with the younger age group (20-35 years) having more significant burnout scores (p = 0.0494). Simple logistic regression showed a significant relationship between burnout severity and pathologic distress, and simple linear regression showed significant correlation between DASS-21 and MBI-HSS (MP) scores, with a R2 value of 0.4633. Conclusion: More planning, programs, resources and further research are needed to support wellness and recovery of all health care professionals who work at the mental health and addictions acute care unit.
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