Endothelial dysfunction is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and it represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Failure to protect against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage accounts for endothelial dysfunction in the majority of pathophysiological conditions. Numerous antioxidant pathways are involved in cellular redox homeostasis, among which the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway is perhaps the most prominent. Nrf2, a transcription factor with a high sensitivity to oxidative stress, binds to AREs in the nucleus and promotes the transcription of a wide variety of antioxidant genes. Nrf2 is located in the cytoskeleton, adjacent to Keap1. Keap1 acts as an adapter for cullin 3/ring-box 1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2, which decreases the activity of Nrf2 under physiological conditions. Oxidative stress causes Nrf2 to dissociate from Keap1 and to subsequently translocate into the nucleus, which results in its binding to ARE and the transcription of downstream target genes. Experimental evidence has established that Nrf2-driven free radical detoxification pathways are important endogenous homeostatic mechanisms that are associated with vasoprotection in the setting of aging, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present review is to briefly summarize the mechanisms that regulate the Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway and the latest advances in understanding how Nrf2 protects against oxidative stress-induced endothelial injuries. Further studies regarding the precise mechanisms by which Nrf2-regulated endothelial protection occurs are necessary for determining whether Nrf2 can serve as a therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
OBJECTIVES:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death worldwide and effective diagnosis is needed. We assessed the diagnostic potential of an autoantibody panel that may benefit early diagnosis.METHODS:We analyzed data for patients with ESCC and normal controls in a test cohort and a validation cohort. Autoantibody levels were measured against a panel of six tumor-associated antigens (p53, NY-ESO-1, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), peroxiredoxin VI (Prx VI), and BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene (Bmi-1)) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:We assessed serum autoantibodies in 513 participants: 388 with ESCC and 125 normal controls. The validation cohort comprised 371 participants: 237 with ESCC, and 134 normal controls. Autoantibodies to at least 1 of 6 antigens demonstrated a sensitivity/specificity of 57% (95% confidence interval (CI): 52–62%)/95% (95% CI: 89–98%) and 51% (95% CI: 45–57%)/96% (95% CI: 91–99%) in the test and validation cohorts, respectively. Measurement of the autoantibody panel could differentiate early-stage ESCC patients from normal controls (sensitivity 45% (95% CI: 32–59%) and specificity 95% (95% CI: 89–98%) in the test cohort; 46% (95% CI: 35–58%) and 96% (95% CI: 91–99%) in the validation cohort). In either cohort, no significant differences were seen when patients were subdivided by age, gender, smoking status, size of tumor, site of tumor, depth of tumor invasion, histological grade, lymph node status, TNM stage, or early-stage and late-stage groups.CONCLUSIONS:Measurement of an autoantibody response to multiple tumor-associated antigens in an optimized panel assay, to help discriminate early-stage ESCC patients from normal controls, may aid in early detection of ESCC.
Based on the meta-analysis, fish oil-supplemented parenteral nutrition was safe, improved clinical outcomes, and altered the fatty acid pattern as well as leukotriene synthesis. More laboratory parameters should be considered in future meta-analyses.
Recently, it was observed that nestin is preferentially expressed in basal ⁄ myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland, and that this intermediate filament may be used as a myoepithelial marker. However, the clinical and prognostic implications of nestin as a marker for breast cancer are still unclear. We examined mastectomy specimens from 150 breast cancers and matching, adjacent non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Overall, triple-negative breast cancers -that is, breast cancers that do not express estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 ⁄ neu) -had higher expression rates for nestin than the other breast cancers (57.14% vs 9.30%; P < 0.001). In triple-negative breast cancers, significantly increased nestin expression rates were observed in patients with lymph node metastasis compared with those without node metastasis (25.00% vs 76.92%; P = 0.032). A similar phenomenon was observed for invasive ductal carcinomas compared with ductal carcinoma in situ (16.67% vs 73.33%; P = 0.046). Nestin expression was also found to be significantly related to ER, PR, and P53 expression (P < 0.05). Nestin expression was associated with both shorter breast cancer-specific survival and poor relapse-free survival in the lymph node-positive group (P = 0.028 and P = 0.012 respectively). After Cox regression was carried out, nestin was not shown to be an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. These findings substantiate the possibility of using nestin as a marker for triple-negative breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer progression is associated with nestin; however, the underlying mechanisms of this relationship require further investigation. (Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 815-819) B reast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women and is the second leading cause of cancer death in women.(1) Over the last 30 years, deaths from breast cancer have approximately tripled in Japan, which historically has had a low incidence of breast cancer.(2) According to the World Health Organization, more than 1.2 million people will be diagnosed with breast cancer each year worldwide.Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease embracing several different phenotypes with consistently different biological characteristics.(3) Hormonal therapies (tamoxifen, anti-estrogens) and adjuvant chemotherapy (trastuzumab [Herceptin]) have benefited millions of patients with breast cancer.(4,5) Their success, however, is limited to a subset of patients whose tumors express estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 ⁄ neu), tumor protein 53 (P53), and so on.(6) Therefore, the status of these proteins has prognostic ramifications for breast cancer.Nestin, a primeval protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells and their immediate, differentiated progeny.(7) It has recently received attention as a marker for newly formed endothelial cells. In their study, Teranishi...
BackgroundThe role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the development of diabetes, especially diabetic complications, has been emphasized in many reports. Accumulation of AGEs in the vasculature triggers a series of morphological and functional changes in endothelial cells (ECs) and induces an increase of endothelial permeability. This study was to investigate the involvement of RhoA/ROCK-dependent moesin phosphorylation in endothelial abnormalities induced by AGEs.MethodsUsing human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), the effects of human serum albumin modified-AGEs (AGE-HSA) on the endothelium were assessed by measuring monolayer permeability and staining of F-actin in HMVECs. Activations of RhoA and ROCK were determined by a luminescence-based assay and immunoblotting. Transfection of recombinant adenovirus that was dominant negative for RhoA (RhoA N19) was done to down-regulate RhoA expression, while adenovirus with constitutively activated RhoA (RhoA L63) was transfected to cause overexpression of RhoA in HMVECs. H-1152 was employed to specifically block activation of ROCK. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to further confirm the interaction of ROCK and its downstream target moesin. To identify AGE/ROCK-induced phosphorylation site in moesin, two mutants pcDNA3/HA-moesinT558A and pcDNA3/HA-moesinT558D were applied in endothelial cells.ResultsThe results showed that AGE-HSA increased the permeability of HMVEC monolayer and triggered the formation of F-actin-positive stress fibers. AGE-HSA enhanced RhoA activity as well as phosphorylation of ROCK in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of RhoA expression with RhoA N19 transfection abolished these AGE-induced changes, while transfection of RhoA L63 reproduced the AGE-evoked changes. H-1152 attenuated the AGE-induced alteration in monolayer permeability and cytoskeleton. The results also confirmed the AGE-induced direct interaction of ROCK and moesin. Thr558 was further identified as the phosphorylating site of moesin in AGE-evoked endothelial responses.ConclusionThese results confirm the involvement of RhoA/ROCK pathway and subsequent moesin Thr558 phosphorylation in AGE-mediated endothelial dysfunction.
BackgroundAHNAK, also known as desmoyokin, is a giant protein with the molecular size of approximately 700 kDa and exerts diverse functions in different types of cancer.ResultsIn the present study, we demonstrated that AHNAK mRNA levels were down-regulated in 7 out of 8 human breast cancer cell lines, especially in triple - negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Moreover, in patients with TNBC, the expression of AHNAK gene was inversely correlated with the tumor status (P = 0.015), lymph node status (P < 0.001), lymph node (LN) infiltration (P < 0.001) and TNM stage (P < 0.001). Moreover, down-regulated AHNAK expression was considered an independent prognostic factor associated with the poor survival of patients with TNBC. Overexpression of AHNAK in two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and BT549, suppressed the in vitro TNBC cell proliferation and colony formation, and inhibited the in vivo TNBC xenograft growth and lung metastasis. The tumor suppressing effect of AHNAK in TNBC was associated with the AKT/MAPK signaling pathway and Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Consistent results were observed when AHNAK was knockdown in BT20 and MDA-MB-435 cells.ConclusionsTaken together, our results suggest that AHNAK acts as a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates TNBC cell proliferation, TNBC xenograft growth and metastasis via different signaling pathways.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13046-017-0522-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
New Findings r What is the central question of this study?Why do different doses of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induce distinct biological effects in endothelial cells? r What is the main finding and its importance? S1P at physiological concentrations preserved endothelial barrier function by binding to S1P receptor 1, then triggering Ca 2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum through phosphoinositide phospholipase C and inositol triphosphate, and consequently strengthening tight junction and F-actin assembly through Rac1 activation. Excessive S1P induced endothelial malfunction by activating S1P receptor 2 and RhoA/ROCK pathway, causing F-actin and tight junction disorganisation. Extracellular Ca 2+ influx was involved in this process.Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid in plasma, and its plasma concentration can be adjusted through a complex metabolic process. The alterations in S1P levels and the activation of receptors collaboratively regulate distinct biological effects. This study was performed to investigate comparatively the effect of different concentrations of S1P on endothelial barrier function and to explore the roles of S1P receptors (S1PRs), Rho GTPases and calcium in S1P-induced endothelial responses. Endothelial barrier function was studied using transendothelial electric resistance and a resistance meter in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Specific agonists or antagonists were applied to control the activation of S1P receptors and the release of calcium from different cellular compartments. The results indicated that at physiological concentrations, S1P preserved endothelial barrier function by binding with S1PR1. The activation of S1PR1 triggered the release of intracellular Ca 2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum through the PI-phospholipase C and inositol trisphosphate pathways. Consequently, the Rho GTPase Rac1 was activated, strengthening the assembly of tight junction proteins and F-actin. However, excessive S1P induced endothelial barrier dysfunction by activating S1PR2 followed by the RhoA/RhoA kinase pathway, causing the disorganization of F-actin and the disassembly of the tight junction protein ZO-1. An influx of extracellular Ca 2+ was involved in this process. These data suggest that physiological and excessive amounts of S1P induce different responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells; the activation of the
This meta-analysis indicated that regular use of aspirin may be associated with reduced risk of noncardia gastric cancer, especially among Caucasians; for H. pylori-infected subjects the result was similar.
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