Fibrin sealant, a widely available tissue adhesive, has been used since 1940 in a variety of clinical applications. Commercially available fibrin sealant products are synthesized from bovine thrombin and human fibrinogen, which may transmit infectious diseases, and recipients may also develop antibodies against bovine thrombin. Bearing these disadvantages in mind, a new fibrin sealant was developed in 1989 by a group of researchers from the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The main purpose was to produce an adhesive fibrin without using human blood, to avoid transmitting infectious diseases. The components of this novel sealant were extracted from large animals and a serine proteinase extracted from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. The applicability of this sealant was tested in animals and humans with beneficial results. The new fibrin sealant can be a useful tool clinically due to its flexibility and diversity of applications. This sealant is a biological and biodegradable product that (1) does not produce adverse reactions, (1) contains no human blood, (3) has a good adhesive capacity, (4) gives no transmission of infectious diseases, and (5) may be used as an adjuvant in conventional suture procedures. The effectiveness of this new fibrin sealant is reviewed and its development and employment are described.
In 1956, Africanized bees began to spread in the American continent from southern Brazil, where original African bees mated with European bees. A few years later, in 1990, these Africanized bees reached the United States and were found in Texas. Currently, these hybrid bees are found in several North American states and will probably reach the Canadian border in the future. Although the presence of Africanized bees had produced positive effects on Brazilian economy, including improvement in crop pollination and in honey production, turning Brazil into a major exporter, the negative impacts-such as swarming, aggressive behavior, and the ability to mass attack-resulted in serious and fatal envenomation with humans and animals. Victims of bee attacks usually develop a severe envenomation syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines [interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Subsequently, such cytokines produce an acute inflammatory response that triggers adverse effects on skeletal muscles; bone marrow; hepatic and renal functions; and cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Finally, the aim of the present review is to study historical characteristics and current status of Africanized bees' spread, the composition of their venom, the impact of the bees on the Brazilian economy and ecology, and clinical aspects of their stings including immune response, and to suggest a protocol for bee sting management since there is no safe and effective antivenom available.
Hemostatic and adhesive agents date back to World War II, when homologous fibrin sealant came onto scene. Considering that infectious diseases can be transmitted via human blood, a new heterologous fibrin sealant was standardized in the 1990s. Its components were a serine protease (a thrombin-like enzyme) extracted from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes and a fibrinogen-rich cryoprecipitate extracted from the blood of Bubalus bubalis buffaloes. This new bioproduct has been used as a coagulant, sealant, adhesive and recently as a candidate scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and bone and cartilage repair. This review discusses the composition of a new heterologous fibrin sealant, and cites published articles related to its preclinical applications aiming at repairing nervous system traumas and regenerating bone marrow. Finally, we present an innovative safety trial I/II that found the product to be a safe and clinically promising candidate for treating chronic venous ulcers. A multicenter clinical trial, phase II/III, with a larger number of participants will be performed to prove the efficacy of an innovative biopharmaceutical product derived from animal venom.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40409-017-0109-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Introduction:In 1956, Africanized honeybees (AHB) migrated from Brazil to other regions of the Western Hemisphere, including South, Central, and North America, except for Canada. Despite being productive, they are highly aggressive and cause fatal accidents. This study aimed to evaluate patients at the Clinical Hospital of Botucatu Medical School (HC-FMB) and to propose treatment guidelines. Methods: From 2005 to 2006, the clinical and laboratorial aspects of 11 patients (7 male and 4 female) and the anatomopathological aspects of one patient who had died in 2003 were analyzed. Results: The age of the surviving patients varied from 5 to 87 years, with a mean of 42.5 years. The majority of accidents occurred in the afternoon, and the number of stings ranged from 20 to 500. The principal signs and symptoms were pain and local inflammatory signs, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. Biochemical findings presented increased levels of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate/alanine aminotransferase. An 11-year-old male patient died upon entering the attic of a two-storey building where he was attacked by a swarm, receiving more than 1,000 stings. He was sent to HC-FMB where he was treated, but he died 24h later. Observed at the autopsy were erythematous-purpuric skin lesions besides necrosis at the sting locations, rhabdomyolysis, focal myocardial necrosis, tubular hydropic degeneration and focal tubular acute necrosis of the kidneys, myoglobinuria, and centrolobular necrosis in the liver. Conclusions: Accidents caused by multiple AHB stings always constitute a medical emergency. As there is no specific antivenom, we have developed guidelines, including first aid, drugs, and the proper removal of stingers.
In this paper further information concerning the ecological and biogeographical aspects of scorpionism is presented. Some of the information already outlined in three previous publications(10,14,16) is assessed, and new data given concerning the pattern of distribution presented by Tityus serrulatus in Brazil. Some new ideas are also proposed regarding the possible evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of parthenogenesis versus sexuality in both the short-term and the long-term
Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and capable of converting fibrinogen into fibrin, presents coagulant and neurotoxic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such coagulant and toxic properties. Gyroxin was isolated using only two chromatographic steps - namely gel filtration (Sephadex G-75) and affinity (Benzamidine Sepharose 6B) - resulting in a sample of high purity, as evaluated by RP-HPLC C2/C18 and electrophoretic analysis that showed a molecular mass of 30 kDa. Gyroxin hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrates, which caused it to be classified as a serine proteinase and thrombin-like enzyme. It was stable from pH 5.5 to 8.5 and inhibited by Mn²+, Cu²+, PMSF and benzamidine. Human plasma coagulation was more efficient at pH 6.0. An in vivo toxicity test showed that only behavioral alterations occurred, with no barrel rotation. Gyroxin was not able to block neuromuscular contraction in vitro, which suggests that its action, at the studied concentrations, has no effect on the peripheral nervous system
The authors have performed a literature review of surgical adhesives, such as cyanoacrylate, collagen gelatin, and fibrin glue. They have included different types of commercial and non-commercial fibrin sealants and have reported on the different components in these adhesives, such as fibrinogen, cryoprecipitate, bovine thrombin, and thrombin-like fraction of snake venom
Bone loss is a common problem after accidental traumas, cancers, congenital defects, and surgical procedures. The techniques normally used in large bone restoration involve complex and invasive procedures such as grafting. Thus, it is of interest to develop alternatives such as bioactive materials to induce accelerated bone regeneration. Natural rubber (NR) membranes are potential candidates due to their characteristics such as biocompatibility, angiogenic potential, flexibility, mechanical stability, surface porosity, and permeability. The present study aims at assessing the osteogenic potential of NR membranes of clones of high bioactivity of Hevea brasiliensis (RRIM 600 and IAN 873) and of Hancornia speciosa, as well as Physicochemical characterization at the NR membranes by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile tests. Critical-size bone defects were surgically made in adult male rabbit calvarium. A fibrin sealant (FS) was used to fix the membranes as a replacement for cyanoacrylate. We compared the respective osteogenic potentials of the tested membranes against a control group in healthy animals. The new bone formed was characterized using radiography, x-ray tomography, and histological and morphometric studies. Our results show that both membranes have great potential for regenerating bone tissue, with higher bioactivity compared to the gold standard (PTFE), which was used as positive control. In both NR membranes the stress-strain profile shows low stress at small strain, characteristic of elastomer with a low degree of reticulation, followed by an increase in the stress at high deformation and two main differences between both NRL biomembranes, related to its composition. The FS acted satisfactorily in the tests, being highly recommended as a substitute for cyanoacrylate in this type of application.
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