a b s t r a c tAlthough Portugal has been deeply affected by the global financial crisis, the impact of the recession and subsequent austerity on health and to health care has attracted relatively little attention. We used several sources of data including the European Union Statistics for Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) which tracks unmet medical need during the recession and before and after the Troika's austerity package. Our results show that the odds of respondents reporting having an unmet medical need more than doubled between 2010 and 2012 (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 2.01-2.89), with the greatest impact on those in employment, followed by the unemployed, retired, and other economically inactive groups. The reasons for not seeking care involved a combination of factors, with a 68% higher odds of citing financial barriers (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.32-2.12), more than twice the odds of citing waiting times and inability to take time off work or family responsibilities (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.20-3.98), and a large increase of reporting delaying care in the hope that the problem would resolve on its own (OR = 13.98, 95% CI 6.51-30.02). Individual-level studies from Portugal also suggest that co-payments at primary and hospital level are having a negative effect on the most vulnerable living in disadvantaged areas, and that health care professionals have concerns about the impact of recession and subsequent austerity measures on the quality of care provided. The Portuguese government no longer needs external assistance, but these findings suggest that measures are now needed to mitigate the damage incurred by the crisis and austerity.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a defining global health crisis of our time. While the impact of COVID-19, including its mental health impact, is increasingly being documented, there remain important gaps regarding the specific consequences of the pandemic on particular population groups, including refugees and migrants. This study aims to uncover the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of refugees and migrants worldwide, disentangling the possible role of social and daily stressors, i.e., experiences of discrimination and daily living conditions. Descriptive analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the responses of N = 20,742 refugees and migrants on the self-reporting global ApartTogether survey. Survey findings indicated that the mental health of refugees and migrants during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly impacted, particularly for certain subgroups, (i.e., insecure housing situation and residence status, older respondents, and females) who reported experiencing higher levels of increased discrimination and increases in daily life stressors. There is a need to recognize the detrimental mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on particular refugee and migrant groups and to develop interventions that target their unique needs.
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Este artigo descreve os aspectos multidimensionais da saúde das populações imigrantes e os seus descendentes, tomando como exemplo o caso português. Por um lado, coloca-se ênfase na importância da acessibilidade e das diferentes barreiras que a condicionam e por outro lado, salientam-se as intervenções do estado e da sociedade civil em prol da saúde dos imigrantes, num contexto actual marcado pela crise internacional.
A imigração brasileira voltou a ter visibilidade nas discussões sobre migração em Portugal, o que se evidencia no número de matérias sobre o tema em jornais e revistas. O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar como esse “novo” momento da imigração brasileira para Portugal tem sido representado na mídia portuguesa no primeiro semestre do ano de 2017. Mais ainda, almeja refletir sobre o que as mudanças desse fluxo revelam. Metodologicamente recorre a uma análise qualitativa com base na análise crítica do discurso (ACD) de uma seleção de matérias veiculadas pela comunicação social portuguesa. Conclui-se que no momento atual a imigração brasileira tem sido representada de uma forma mais positiva, dando visibilidade de forma seletiva aos casos de sucesso como os investidores e as famílias de classe média e alta. No entanto, descura-se que os fluxos são ainda mais diversos, e que esta diversidade sugere o início de uma terceira vaga migratória brasileira para Portugal.
International migration contributes to increasing cultural diversity in many European cities. Historically, migration studies have focused on the integration of immigrants foregrounding race/ethnicity and identity issues, limiting our understanding of intercultural diversity. A new paradigm focusing on relational patterns among groups is emerging, highlighting the importance of mutual relations, interactions and influences among residents of different origins and backgrounds, including the experience of both immigrants and autochthonous populations. The notions of superdiversity and conviviality have significantly contributed to this debate. This paper discusses how both were methodologically operationalized in multi-sited ethnographies carried out in Lisbon and Granada, during 2009-2012. Superdiversity and conviviality are the main theoretical frameworks used to understand how interculturality is lived and experienced at the local level. We reflect on their strengths and weaknesses, unpacking common assumptions about race, ethnicity and culture, specifically looking at the negotiation of difference in intercultural events.
BackgroundDiversity in Europe has both increased and become more complex posing challenges to both national and local welfare state regimes. Evidence indicates specific barriers for migrant, faith and minority ethnic groups when accessing healthcare. However, previous studies of health in diverse cities in European countries have mainly adopted an ethno-national focus. Taking into account the new complexity of diversity within cities, a deeper and multi-faceted understanding of everyday health practices in superdiverse contexts is needed to support appropriate healthcare provision.Methods/DesignThis protocol describes a mixed method study investigating how residents in superdiverse neighbourhoods access healthcare. The study will include participant observation and qualitative interviewing as well as a standardised health survey and will be carried out in eight superdiverse neighbourhoods – with varying deprivations levels and trajectories of change – in four European countries (Germany, Portugal, Sweden and UK). In each neighbourhood, trained polylingual community researchers together with university researchers will map formal and informal provision and infrastructures supportive to health and healthcare. In-depth interviews with residents and healthcare providers in each country will investigate local health-supportive practices. Thematic analysis will be used to identify different types of help-seeking behaviours and support structures across neighbourhoods and countries. Using categories identified from analyses of interview material, a health survey will be set up investigating determinants of access to healthcare. Complex models, such as structural equation modelling, will be applied to analyse commonalities and differences between population groups, neighbourhoods and countries.DiscussionThis study offers the potential to contribute to a deeper understanding of how residents in superdiverse neighbourhoods deal with health and healthcare in everyday practices. The findings will inform governmental authorities, formal and informal healthcare providers how to further refine health services and how to achieve equitable access in diverse population groups.
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