SummaryA relationship has been reported between trace elements and diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the role of such a relationship in 83 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (40 men and 43 women), with a mean duration of diabetes of 3.9 ± 3.6 years. Patients with nephropathy were excluded. Thirty healthy nondiabetic subjects were studied for comparative analysis. Subjects were subdivided into obese and non-obese. Diabetic subjects were also subdivided into controlied and uncontrolled groups; control was based on fasting blood glucose and serum fructosamine levels. Plasma copper, zinc and magnesium levels were analysed using a GBC 902 double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma zinc and magnesium levels were comparable between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, while copper levels were significantly elevated (p<0.01) in diabetic patients. Age, sex, duration and control of diabetes did not influence copper, zinc, or magnesium concentrations. We conclude that zinc and magnesium levels are not altered in diabetes mellitus, but the increased copper levels found in diabetics in our study may merit further investigation of the relationship between copper and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
BackgroundHyperprolactinemia has been associated with changes in body composition and metabolic abnormalities. Normalization of prolactin (PRL) with dopamine agonists has been found to reverse these abnormalities. This study was designed to assess the anthropometric and metabolic alterations associated with prolactinoma and response of these abnormalities to cabergoline treatment.MethodsIn a non-randomised matched prospective design, 19 consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median PRL 118.6 (105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied. The controls were age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data and metabolic variables were studied at baseline, 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment.ResultsPatients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < .001), LDL-cholesterol (P = .001) and triglycerides (TG) (P = .009) as compared to age, gender and BMI matched healthy controls. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = .029), with a further decline at 6 months (P < .001) of cabergoline therapy. In addition, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < .001), waist circumference (P = .003), waist-hip ratio (P = .03) and total body fat (P = .003) at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. A significant decline in plasma glucose (P < .001), total cholesterol (P = .009), LDL-cholesterol (P < .001) and TG (P < .001) was seen after 6 months of cabergoline treatment.ConclusionsPatients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared with matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities.
ObjectiveTo compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction.MethodsRandomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of patients in each group. DFUs were treated until wound closure, either spontaneously, surgically, or until completion of the 8-week period.ResultsGranulation tissue appeared in 26 (92.85%) patients by the end of Week 2 in Group A, while it appeared in 15 (53.57%) patients by that time in Group B. 100% granulation was achieved in 21 (77.78%) patients by the end of Week 5 in Group A as compared to only 10 (40%) patients by that time in Group B. Patients in Group A had fewer number of positive blood cultures, secondary amputations and were satisfied with treatment as compared to Group B.ConclusionVAC appears to be more effective, safe, and patient satisfactory compared to conventional dressings for the treatment of DFUs.
Background:Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a necrotizing infection which results in gas within the renal parenchyma, collecting system, or perinephric tissue. A majority of cases occur in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In EPN, early aggressive medical treatment may avoid nephrectomy.Aims:The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with EPN with respect to patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic investigations, microbiological findings, treatment modality and outcome, and the influence of prognostic factors on the outcome.Materials and Methods:We reviewed the hospital records of 26 patients with EPN for clinical, laboratory, radiological, and microbiological findings, treatments given, and outcome. The severity of EPN was graded as per the Huang classification. We applied the reported prognostic factors to our patients to find out whether these factors correlated with failure of conservative treatment.Results:All the study subjects had DM and all but two of them were females. The majority of our patients (61.5%) had extensive EPN (class 3 or 4) and majority (76.9%) had two or more bad prognostic factors. Escherichia coli was the most common causative organism involved in 50% of our cases. Twenty-three (88.5%) of our patients responded to conservative treatment, two required nephrectomy, and one expired on conservative treatment.Conclusions:In this series of patients with EPN, all had DM, nearly all were women, and E. coli was the most frequently isolated pathogen. Nearly a third of our patients had bilateral disease. Despite the presence of two or more bad prognostic factors and extensive EPN (class 3 or 4) in a majority of our patients, conservative treatment afforded a striking success rate of 88.5%. We recommend early aggressive medical treatment and suggest that nephrectomy should be considered only if patients deteriorate or do not improve on conservative treatment.
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