The anadromous catfish, Genidens barbus, is a commercial and vulnerable species from South America. The aims of the present study were to assess whether the nursery areas can be discriminated by using microchemical signatures of lapillus otoliths, to assess the accuracy of classifying fish in relation to natal nursery area and to discuss the possibility of existence of homing behaviour. Thus, the otolith-core chemical signatures (barium (Ba):calcium (Ca), lithium (Li):Ca, magnesium (Mg):Ca, manganese (Mn):Ca, strontium (Sr):Ca, and zinc (Zn):Ca ratios) of adult fish were compared among different estuaries (De La Plata River in Argentina, and Patos Lagoon, Paranaguá Bay and Guanabara Bay in Brazil). PERMANOVA analysis showed significant differences in the multi-element signatures of the otolith core among sampling sites for all cohorts (2002, 2003, 2006 and 2007), indicating that the technique has considerable potential for use in future assessments of population connectivity and nursery areas of G. barbus. Via quadratic discriminant function analysis, fish were classified to natal nursery areas with 80–100% cross-validation classification accuracies. These results suggested that a high level of spatial segregation exists in adult catfish life and homing behaviour could not be ruled out on the basis of our data.
The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of multi-elemental otolith fingerprints as a tool to delimit catfish Genidens barbus fish stocks in four estuaries from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Barium:Calcium (Ca), Magnesium:Ca, Manganese:Ca, Sodium:Ca and Strontium:Ca ratios in the otolith edge were determined by LA-ICPMS. PERMANOVA analysis reveal significant differences in the multi-element signatures among estuaries (p=0.0001-0.002). Reclassification rates of quadratic discriminant analysis are high, averaging 89.9 % (78-100%). The new data presented here show that the otolith chemistry is a potential tool for stock identification, and indicates the presence of at least four stocks which should probably be handled independently.
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Sagitta otoliths are usually formed of calcium carbonate polymorphs as aragonite. The objective of this study was to verify which carbonate polymorph is predominant in the sagitta otolith of Menticirrhus americanus and check whether this pattern remains in otoliths with morphological alterations. Otoliths of M. americanus were obtained from five sites on the southeast‐south coast of Brazil (São Sebastião (SS) 23°45′S–45°24′O, n = 29; Cananéia‐Iguape Estuarine Complex (CI) 25°02′S–47°54′O, n = 30; Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) 25°28′S–48°20′O, n = 35; Itapoá (IT) 26°07′S–48°36′O, n = 31; Laguna (LA) 28°28′S–48°46′O, n = 13). The characterization of carbonate polymorphs of otoliths was performed through Raman spectroscopy, a photonic and non‐destructive technique that analyzes molecular vibrations induced by laser. We analyzed 138 pairs of M. americanus otoliths, of which eight otoliths from different pairs presented morphological alterations (SS n = 1, CEP n = 5, IT n = 1, LA n = 1). The Raman spectra show that normal otoliths, that is, without morphological alterations, presented only aragonite in their structure. Among the otoliths that presented morphological alterations, the Raman spectra allowed to identify in six otoliths the deposition of aragonite and in only two otoliths the deposition of vaterite (one specimen of the PEC and one of SS).
This study aimed to verify variations in the form of the sagitta otolith of Menticirrhus americanus as to their ontogeny, sex and stage of such structure. Ontogenetically were found significant differences (p < 0.05) for all shape indices (aspect ratios, shape factor, rectangularity, ellipticity, relative surface of sulcus acusticus) and also in the wavelet of the otolith. The CVA presented a 98.6% correct reclassification of the otolith between interval class. Sexual variations were found in the wavelet and in the relative surface of sulcus acusticus index. Between adult females and young females, differences were not detected in the wavelet and rectangularity, but significant differences were found in all other shape indices. The CVA presented a 79.6% correct reclassification of the otolith of the sexes and stages of life sampled. Young females and adults females showed highest correct percentage of classification. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time the influence of the ontogenetic variation and sexual in the form of the otoliths.
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