RESUMO -O uso intenso de glyphosate em sistemas de produção de frutíferas e soja -em especial no sistema de semeadura direta da soja -favoreceu a seleção de biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate em Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis (buva). Estudos da biologia destas espécies subsidiariam a proposição de estratégias visando o seu manejo integrado. Um programa de pesquisa foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar como a germinação das duas espécies foi influenciada pelas populações, composição do substrato de semeadura, profun didade da semente no perfil do substrato, temp eratura e luz. Num primeiro experimento, os tratamentos foram organizados em esquema fatorial, em que o fator A consistiu das populações (duas de cada espécie), o fator B foi atribuído à composição do substrato (terra, areia e terra:areia) e o fator C foram as profundidades no perfil do substrato (0, 0,5, 1, 2 e 5 cm). No segundo experimento, foram testados o fator A; o fator B, que foi a temperatura (constante de 20, 25 ou 30 ºC, e alternada: 20/30 ºC); e o fator C, a condição luminosa (luz, escuro). No terceiro experimen to, os fatores consistira m de espécies e temperatura (10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 ºC). Avaliaram-se a emergência de plântulas ou a germinação de sementes aos 12 dias após a instalação do experimento. De acordo com os resultados, chegou-se às seguintes conclusões: todos os biótipos das duas espécies tiveram emergência semelhante em relação ao perfil do solo; o aumento da profundidade da semente no perfil do solo reduziu a emergência de plântulas; o substrato arenoso favoreceu a germinação de sementes posicionadas a 0,5 e a 1,0 cm de profundidade; as duas espécies são fotoblásticas positivas; a temperatura ótima para germinação das espécies foi de 20 ºC, mas C. canadensis apresentou germinação melhor em temperaturas inferiores à ótima e C. bonariensis germinou melhor em temperaturas superiores a esta. (soil, sand, soil: sand); and factor C was substrate depths (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 cm). The second experiment included the first factor; plus factor B as temperature (constant 20, 25, or 30 ºC, and alternating 20/30 ºC), and factor C as light conditions (light, dark). In a third experiment, factors consisted of species and temperature (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 ºC). Seedling emergence or seed germination were assessed at 1 Recebido para publicação em 17.1.2007 e na forma revisada em 15.5.2007. Palavras
Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide‐resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone‐resistant rice (IMI‐rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI‐rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide‐resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide‐resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide‐resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies.
SUMMARYThe lack of control of barnyardgrass in flooded rice cultivated with imidazolinone-resistant rice cultivars is challenging the utilization of this system, which is continuously expanding for new rice areas worldwide. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the frequency, distribution and mechanisms of imidazolinone resistance in barnyardgrass to establish the best practices to control and prevent this problem. The distribution of resistance was evaluated in 624 populations collected in Southern Brazil. The frequency of imidazolinone-herbicide resistance was 0·81, broadly distributed in all sampled regions. Resistance to quinclorac was also found in 0·19 of the populations, but all of the evaluated populations were susceptible to cyhalofop-butyl. Further studies were conducted in six populations. The enhanced metabolism was assessed with the metabolic inhibitors that reversed the resistance to quinclorac from 0·54 to 1·00 in two populations and the resistance to imazethapyr from 0·15 to 0·41 in three populations. The acetolactase synthase (ALS) enzyme activity also indicated the occurrence of altered target site resistance in two populations caused by the ALS gene mutations Trp574Leu and Ser653Asn, which is a novel finding in this species. The herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass in Southern Brazil presented a complex basis of resistance because it is associated with resistance to multiple herbicides due to multiple mechanisms and with multiple mutations of the ALS gene. This indicates that it is necessary to adopt specific measures to prevent and control the evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in this species.
-Eleusine indica (goosegrass) is a diploid grass weed which has developed resistance to ACCase inhibitors during the last ten years due to the intensive and frequent use of sethoxydim to control grass weeds in soybean crops in Brazil. Plant dose-response assays confirmed the resistant behaviour of one biotype obtaining high resistance factor values: 143 (fenoxaprop), 126 (haloxyfop), 84 (sethoxydim) to 58 (fluazifop). ACCase in vitro assays indicated a target site resistance as the main cause of reduced susceptibility to ACCase inhibitors. PCR-generated fragments of the ACCase CT domain of the resistant and sensitive reference biotype were sequenced and compared. A point mutation was detected within the triplet of aspartate at the amino acid position 2078 (referred to EMBL accession no. AJ310767) and resulted in the triplet of glycine. These results constitute the first report on a target site mutation for a Brazilian herbicide resistant grass weed.Keywords: goosegrass, cross-resistance, enzyme, PCR, herbicide. RESUMO -Eleusine indica (ELEIN) é uma espécie monocotiledônea, diploide. No Brasil, ela desenvolveu resistência aos inibidores da ACCase durante os últimos dez anos, devido ao uso intensivo e frequente desses graminicidas para controlar plantas daninhas em lavouras de soja. Experimentos de dose-resposta realizados com a planta confirmaram a resistência de um biótipo. Houve elevada tolerância aos herbicidas, com fatores de resistência da ordem de 143 (fenoxaprop), 126 (haloxyfop), 84 (sethoxydim) e 58 (fluazifop). Ensaios com a enzima ACCase in vitro indicaram
RESUMO -Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estimar níveis críticos de dano de papuã (Urochloa plantaginea) em feijão-comum, em situações onde a planta daninha foi manejada precocemente e ocorreu reinfestação, e avaliar as alterações que sofre em decorrência de cultivares de feijão-comum e variáveis explicativas da infestação. Foram realizados dois experimentos em campo, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, sendo um com o cultivar UFT-06 (grupo Carioca) e o outro com o cultivar IPR Graúna (grupo Preto). Os níveis de infestação de papuã foram obtidos com quatro herbicidas residuais, aplicados em duas doses cada, mais testemunhas com e sem controle de papuã. A densidade, massa fresca e massa seca do papuã foram avaliadas no início e no final do período crítico de prevenção da interferência, e o rendimento de grãos da cultura foi avaliado por ocasião da colheita. O nível crítico de dano de papuã não teve valor elevado nessa situação (0,4 a 0,7%); todavia, pode haver benefício em controlá-lo de acordo com a infestação e o custo de controle. O nível crítico de dano foi sempre maior para o cultivar IPR Graúna, em relação ao UTF-06. A densidade e as massas fresca e seca das plantas de papuã explicaram adequadamente a perda de produção de feijão-comum pelo modelo de regressão não linear da hipérbole retangular. Palavras-chave: Phaseolus vulgaris, Urochloa plantaginea, Brachiaria plantaginea, nível de dano econômico, manejo integrado. ABSTRACT -The objectives were to estimate the magnitude of the critical density of alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea) in common bean
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-tolerant weeds cause considerable yield losses and represent a growing threat to soybean production systems. Despite the relevance of this topic, few studies have evaluated the dispersal of these species in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dispersal and frequency of known GR and glyphosate-tolerant weeds in soybean-producing microregions. A total of 2,481 interviews were conducted in different regions of Brazil. The interviews were stratified among 20 edaphoclimatic microregions (ECRs) to cover all of the country’s soybean-producing regions. A minimum number of interviews was estimated to generate a margin of error of ≤10% within the ECRs and ≤5% in the country. The values of the farmers’ responses were extrapolated to the total soybean production area of each ECR and the country as a whole, and the absolute values of each response were normalized as percentage values. The dispersal and management data demonstrate a loss of efficiency of glyphosate-resistance technology. Species that are naturally tolerant to glyphosate such as goosegrass, Commelina spp., and Ipomoea spp. had a greater presence in the ECRs, as did the resistant biotypes, particularly Conyza spp. and sourgrass, due to the large area cultivated with GR soybean, where glyphosate has been used with high frequency.
IIIInterferência e nível de dano econômico de Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea nil na cultura do feijão comumInterference and economic threshold of Brachiaria plantaginea and Ipomoea nil in the common bean crop
-Herbicides mixtures are used in many situations without the adequate knowledge related with the effect on major target weeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different herbicides mixtures used in irrigated rice in order to establish the adequate combinations for the prevention and management of herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Three experiments were performed at field conditions with all major post-emergent herbicides used in irrigated rice in Brazil. The first experiment was performed with barnyardgrass resistant to imidazolinone herbicides and herbicides applied at label rates. The second and third experiments were performed with barnyardgrass resistant and susceptible to imidazolinone herbicides applied at doses of 50 or 75% of the label rates. The occurrence of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects was identified at 18, 18 and 64%, respectively, among the total of 50 different associations of herbicide and rates evaluated. In general, the mixture of ACCase inhibitors with ALS inhibitors, quinclorac, clomazone + propanil or thiobencarb resulted in antagonism. Sinergic mixtures were found in clomazone with propanil + thiobencarb, profoxydim with cyhalofop-butyl or clomazone, and quinclorac with imazapyr + imazapic, bispyribac-sodium or cyhalofop-butyl. The mixtures of quinclorac with profoxydim were antagonic. Rice grain yield varied according to the efficiency of weed control. Seveveral mixtures were effective for imidazolinone resistant barnyardgrass control.
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