Proper growth and development require the orderly synthesis and deposition of individual components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) into well ordered networks. Once formed, the ECM maintains tissue structure and houses resident cells. One ECM component, ␤ig-h3, is a highly conserved transforming growth factor-␤-inducible protein that has been hypothesized to function as a bifunctional linker between individual matrix components and resident cells. To gain insights into its physiological function, full-length ␤ig-h3 protein was produced using a baculovirus expression system and purified under native conditions. Human fibroblasts attached and spread on ␤ig-h3-coated plates and developed actin stress fibers. Purified ␤ig-h3 binds fibronectin (FN) and type I collagen (Col I) but does not bind gelatin. Using defined fragments of FN, we localized the ␤ig-h3 recognition region to the gelatin/collagen binding domain present in the N-terminal region of the FN molecule. Our results identify FN and Col I as two ligands of ␤ig-h3 in the ECM.
In this sample of hospital patients receiving SUD CL services, the risk of rehospitalization differed by type of SUD diagnosis. In-hospital initiation of OAT is promising for facilitating treatment linkage post-discharge, but this small study did not show differences in rehospitalization based on OAT initiation. These findings could inform services for hospital patients with comorbid SUDs.
During endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes undergo a process of terminal differentiation or maturation, during which the rate of proliferation decreases, cells become hypertrophic, and the extracellular matrix is altered by production of a unique protein, collagen X, as well as proteins that promote mineralization. The matrix surrounding the hypertrophic chondrocytes eventually becomes mineralized, and the mineralized matrix serves as a template for bone deposition. This process is responsible for most longitudinal bone growth, both during embryonic development and in the postnatal long bone growth plates. Chondrocyte maturation must be precisely controlled, balancing proliferation with terminal differentiation; changes in the rate of either proliferation or differentiation result in shortened bones. Numerous signaling molecules have been implicated in regulation of this process. These include the negative regulators Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP; Pthlh, PTH-like hormone), as well as a number of positive regulators. This review will focus on several positive regulators which exert profound effects on chondrocyte maturation: the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, retinoic acid (the major active metabolite of vitamin A) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), as well as the transcription factor Runx2. Each of these molecules is essential for endochondral bone formation and cannot compensate for the others; abrogation of any one of them prevents differentiation. The important features of each of these signaling pathways will be discussed as they relate to chondrocyte maturation, and a model will be proposed suggesting how these pathways may converge to regulate this process.
A main requisite in the phagocytosis of ingested material is a coordinated series of maturation steps which lead to the degradation of ingested cargo. Photoreceptor outer segment (POS) renewal involves phagocytosis of the distal disk membranes by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Previously, we identified melanoregulin (MREG) as an intracellular cargo-sorting protein required for the degradation of POS disks. Here, we provide evidence that MREG-dependent processing links both autophagic and phagocytic processes in LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). Ingested POS phagosomes are associated with endogenous LC3 and MREG. The LC3 association with POSs exhibited properties of LAP; it was independent of rapamycin pretreatment, but dependent on Atg5. Loss of MREG resulted in a decrease in the extent of LC3-POS association. Studies using DQ™-BSA suggest that loss of MREG does not compromise the association and fusion of LC3-positive phagosomes with lysosomes. Furthermore, the mechanism of MREG action is likely through a protein complex that includes LC3, as determined by colocalization and immunoprecipitation in both RPE cells and macrophages. We posit that MREG participates in coordinating the association of phagosomes with LC3 for content degradation with the loss of MREG leading to phagosome accumulation.
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