Background and Purpose:
The efficiency of prehospital care chain response and the adequacy of hospital resources are challenged amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, with suspected consequences for patients with ischemic stroke eligible for mechanical thrombectomy (MT).
We conducted a prospective national-level data collection of patients treated with MT, ranging 45 days across epidemic containment measures instatement, and of patients treated during the same calendar period in 2019. The primary end point was the variation of patients receiving MT during the epidemic period. Secondary end points included care delays between onset, imaging, and groin puncture. To analyze the primary end point, we used a Poisson regression model. We then analyzed the correlation between the number of MTs and the number of COVID-19 cases hospitalizations, using the Pearson correlation coefficient (compared with the null value).
A total of 1513 patients were included at 32 centers, in all French administrative regions. There was a 21% significant decrease (0.79; [95%CI, 0.76–0.82];
<0.001) in MT case volumes during the epidemic period, and a significant increase in delays between imaging and groin puncture, overall (mean 144.9±SD 86.8 minutes versus 126.2±70.9;
<0.001 in 2019) and in transferred patients (mean 182.6±SD 82.0 minutes versus 153.25±67;
<0.001). After the instatement of strict epidemic mitigation measures, there was a significant negative correlation between the number of hospitalizations for COVID and the number of MT cases (
=0.04). Patients treated during the COVID outbreak were less likely to receive intravenous thrombolysis and to have unwitnessed strokes (both
Our study showed a significant decrease in patients treated with MTs during the first stages of the COVID epidemic in France and alarming indicators of lengthened care delays. These findings prompt immediate consideration of local and regional stroke networks preparedness in the varying contexts of COVID-19 pandemic evolution.
Combining mTICI 2C and TICI 3 grades helps to determine a subgroup of patients achieving better functional outcomes than mTICI 2B patients. Achieving mTICI 2C/3 reperfusion should be the new aim of mechanical thrombectomy for anterior circulation LVO.
Patients with modified TICI 3 reperfusion have better functional outcomes than those with modified TICI 2b. Given the improving reperfusion rates obtained with thrombectomy devices, future thrombectomy trials should consider modified TICI 2b and modified TICI 3 status separately.
Cerebral ischemia is caused by arterial occlusion due to a thrombus or an embolus. Such occlusion induces multiple and concomitant pathophysiological processes that involve bioenergetic failure, acidosis, loss of cell homeostasis, excitotoxicity, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. All of these mechanisms contribute to neuronal death, mainly via apoptosis or necrosis. The immune system is involved in this process in the early phases after brain injury, which contributes to potential enlargement of the infarct size and involves the penumbra area. Whereas inflammation and the immune system both exert deleterious effects, they also contribute to brain protection by stimulating a preconditioning status and to the concomitant repair of the injured parenchyma. This review describes the main phases of the inflammatory process occurring after arterial cerebral occlusion, with an emphasis on the role of single mediators.
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