India, which has the second-largest population in the world is suffering severely from COVID-19 disease. By May 18th, India investigated ∼1 lakh (0.1million) infected cases from COVID-19, and as of 11th July the cases equalled 8 lakhs. Social distancing and lockdown rules were employed in India, which however had an additional impact on the economy, human living, and environment. Where a negative impact was observed for the economy and human life, the environment got a positive one. How India dealt and can potentially deal with these three factors during and post COVID-19 situation has been discussed here.
To combat global climate change moving towards sustainable, mobility is one of the most holistic approaches. Hence, decarbonization of the transport sector by employing electric vehicles (EVs) is currently an environmentally benign and efficient solution. The EV includes the hybrid EV (HEV), the plug-in hybrid EV (PHEV), and the battery EV (BEV). A storage system, a charging station, and power electronics are the essential components of EVs. The EV charging station is primarily powered from the grid which can be replaced by a solar photovoltaic system. Wide uptake of EVs is possible by improving the technologies, and also with support from the government. However, greenhouse gas emission (GHG) saving potential of the EV is debatable when the required power to charge the EV comes from traditional fossil fuel sources.
external daylight through semitransparent type building
integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) windows can alter the visible daylight
spectrum and render different colors, which can have an impact on
building’s occupants’ comfort. Color properties are
defined by the color rendering index (CRI) and correlated color temperature
(CCT). In this work, a less explored color comfort analysis of N719
dye-sensitized TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs)
BIPV window was characterized and analyzed after 2 years of ambient
exposure. Three different DSSCs were fabricated by varying TiO2 thickness. The reduced average visible transmission was observed
while enhanced color properties were obtained for all three DSSCs.
This study could pave way to future developments in the area of BIPV
technology using DSSC in terms of their long-term exploration.
The accumulation of soiling on photovoltaic (PV) modules affects PV systems worldwide. Soiling consists of mineral dust, soot particles, aerosols, pollen, fungi and/or other contaminants that deposit on the surface of PV modules. Soiling absorbs, scatters, and reflects a fraction of the incoming sunlight, reducing the intensity that reaches the active part of the solar cell. Here, we report on the comparison of naturally accumulated soiling on coupons of PV glass soiled at seven locations worldwide. The spectral hemispherical transmittance was measured. It was found that natural soiling disproportionately impacts the blue and ultraviolet (UV) portions of the spectrum compared to the visible and infrared (iR). Also, the general shape of the transmittance spectra was similar at all the studied sites and could adequately be described by a modified form of the Ångström turbidity equation. In addition, the distribution of particles sizes was found to follow the IEST-STD-CC 1246E cleanliness standard. The fractional coverage of the glass surface by particles could be determined directly or indirectly and, as expected, has a linear correlation with the transmittance. It thus becomes feasible to estimate the optical consequences of the soiling of pV modules from the particle size distribution and the cleanliness value. Soiling has a negative impact on the economic revenues of PV installations, not only because it reduces the amount of energy converted by the PV modules, but also because it introduces additional operating and maintenance costs and, at the same time, increases the uncertainty on the estimation of PV performance, leading to both higher financial risks and interest rates charged to plant developers. Power reductions greater than 50% have been reported in the literature because of soiling 1,2 ; it has been estimated that an average loss of 4% on the global annual energy yield of PV could cause losses in revenue on the order of 2 × 10 9 US$ annually 3. A careful monitoring of soiling is required to mitigate its effect 4. Soiling losses are generally quantified by using soiling stations. These systems are made of at least two PV devices, one of which is regularly cleaned while the other is left to soil naturally. By comparing the ratio of the electrical outputs of the two devices, it is possible to estimate the impact of soiling on the PV performance 5,6. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) metric to monitor and quantify the impact of soiling on PV modules is the soiling ratio, r s , which expresses the ratio of the electrical output of a soiled PV device to the output of the same device under clean conditions 7. Like the transmittance, a higher soiling ratio translates to less soiling deposited on the modules. A value of 1 indicates clean conditions, with no soiling. For a more detailed definition of r s , please refer to the Methodology section. The fractional loss of solar-generated power due to soiling is 1 − r s .
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