Background: Blastocystis sp. affects a wide variety of animals and is the most common protozoan in human fecal samples with potential pandemic distribution. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Blastocystis sp. in different classes of hosts in Brazil. Methods: Studies that analyzed hosts of various classes, including humans, domestic animals, wild animals or captive animals, were considered. The pooled prevalence of Blastocystis sp. infection was estimated by random effects models. Results: For humans, similar prevalence rates were found for males (31.0%, 95% CI: 17.0-45.0%; weight 10%) and females (28.0%, 95% CI: 16.0-41.0%; weight 10%); the state of Mato Grosso do Sul showed the highest prevalence, with 41.0% positivity (95% CI: 36.0-46.0%; weight 2.9%). The prevalence among immunocompromised patients was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.0-7.0%; weight 10%), and the most common cause of immunosuppression was hemodialysis, with 23.0% (95% CI: 17.0-29.0%; weight 12.4%). Among classifications according to interaction with humans, wild and domestic animals presented values of 19.0% (95% CI: 7.0-31.0%; weight 42.6%) and 17.0% (95% CI: 13.0-21.0%; weight 29.6%), respectively. Among these animals, mammals (39.0%, 95% CI: 21.0-56.0%; weight 47.3%) and birds (18.0%, 95% CI: 10.0-27.0%; weight 39.3%) exhibited the highest prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. revealed greater genetic diversity for clades of subtypes (STs) ST1, ST2 and ST3. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in the Brazilian human population was 24%, which reflects the reality in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions, where prevalence rates of up to 40% were found. Among animals, mammals and birds exhibited the highest prevalence.
During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms, including potentially new Ehrlichia species, circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in sera of 325 dogs in 11 villages inhabited by the Tapirapé and Karajá ethnic groups in the south of the Brazilian Amazon was determined by the use of an indirect fluorescence antibody test. Antibodies (cutoff 1:16) to T. gondii were found in 169 (52%) and to N. caninum (cut-off 1:50) in 32 (9.8%) of 325 dogs. Seropositivity for both parasitic infections was widely prevalent in dogs from these villages and was higher in older dogs, indicating post-natal transmission.
O papel do cão como um hospedeiro definitivo de parasitoses intestinais com potencial zoonótico tem sido largamente reconhecido como um problema de saúde pública. Este trabalho analisou a prevalência e distribuição de enteroparasitas em fezes de cães de rua de oito cidades dos diferentes biomas nordestinos, com interesse de investigar a contaminação ambiental por enteroparasitas zoonóticos. 340 amostras fecais foram coletadas nos municípios de João Lisboa e Raposa (Maranhão), Piripiri e Domingos Mourão (Piauí), Fortaleza (Ceará), Petrolina (Pernambuco), Paulo Afonso e Salvador (Bahia). Deste total 43,2% resultaram positivas para alguma espécie de parasita intestinal. Maiores prevalências foram encontradas por ancilostomídeos com 43,5%, seguidos por Toxocara canis com 15%, Neospora sp. com 10,2% e Cryptosporidium sp. com 8,2%. Analisando a porcentagem de positividade por enteroparasitas nos quatro biomas da região Nordeste, o bioma Mata Atlântica foi o que apresentou maior prevalência (54,9%), seguido da Amazônia (54,3%), Caatinga (40,2%) e Cerrado (31,8%). O estudo da ocorrência e distribuição desses parasitas contribui com a vigilância epidemiológica das doenças enteroparasitárias e na aplicação de programas de saúde pública e veterinária para minimizarem a possibilidade de infecção e reinfecção dos animais e a transmissão para seres humanos.
Little information is available on the occurrence and genetic variability of the diarrhoea-causing enteric protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis in indigenous communities in Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey describes the frequency, genotypes, and risk associations for this pathogen in Tapirapé people (Brazilian Amazon) at four sampling campaigns during 2008–2009. Microscopy was used as a screening test, and molecular (PCR and Sanger sequencing) assays targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA, the glutamate dehydrogenase, the beta-giardin, and the triosephosphate isomerase genes as confirmatory/genotyping methods. Associations between G. duodenalis and sociodemographic and clinical variables were investigated using Chi-squared test and univariable/multivariable logistic regression models. Overall, 574 individuals belonging to six tribes participated in the study, with G. duodenalis prevalence rates varying from 13.5–21.7%. The infection was positively linked to younger age and tribe. Infected children <15 years old reported more frequent gastrointestinal symptoms compared to adults. Assemblage B accounted for three out of four G. duodenalis infections and showed a high genetic diversity. No association between assemblage and age or occurrence of diarrhoea was demonstrated. These data indicate that the most likely source of infection was anthropic and that different pathways (e.g., drinking water) may be involved in the transmission of the parasite.
RESUMOEste trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição e estrutura de um estrato arbóreo da floresta tropical úmida em Alta Floresta -MT, determinando os padrões de semelhança com outras regiões da Amazônia brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em uma área de 2 hectares, dividida em 20 parcelas de 10x 100m, onde foram mensurados a altura e o DAP ≥ 10 cm de todos os indivíduos. Para avaliação do grau de similaridade entre a composição florística e estrutura arbórea de Alta Floresta com as nove regiões pertencentes à Amazônia Legal brasileira, utilizou-se o método de agrupamento hierárquico aglomerativo com ligações pela média dos grupos (UPGMA), por meio do índice de Sorensen (qualitativo). Para a ordenação, foi utilizado o mesmo programa, utilizando a Escalonamento Multidimensional não-métrica (NMS) por meio do índice de Jaccard aplicado à presença e ausência de famílias e gêneros. Para análise de similaridade entre as 10 regiões, comparando a matriz de distâncias físicas entre elas com as matrizes de composição de famílias e gêneros, utilizou-se o programa PATN por meio do Structural analysis of tropical rainforest in Alta Floresta city, Mato Grosso, BrazilABSTRACT This paper deals with the composition and structure of a pristine tropical rainforest using likelihood patterns to compare it with other Amazonian sites. This work was carried out in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso. Our ground truth was obtained from a two-hectare plot, which was divided into 20 plots of 10 by 100 m each. In each plot, all trees with dbh = 10 cm were recorded. To evaluate the level of similarity between the Alta Floresta and other nine Amazonian sites we used the hierarchy clustering method linked by group means (UPGMA) through Sorensen index (qualitative). For ordination, we used the same method based on multidimensional non-metric scaling (NMS) through Jaccard index applied to presence or absence of botanical families or genera. The software PATN was used to run Mantel test with Jaccard index, which was, in turn, used for the similarity analysis among sites. The studied site presented 1,101 individuals distributed in 32 botanical families, 54 genera e 68 species. The richest family was Leguminosae. Helicostilys podogyne and Cecropia sp. were the most important species of the studied area. The Alta Floresta site did not present any similarity when compared to other Amazonian sites.
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