The search for efficient image denoising methods is still a valid challenge at the crossing of functional analysis and statistics. In spite of the sophistication of the recently proposed methods, most algorithms have not yet attained a desirable level of applicability. All show an outstanding performance when the image model corresponds to the algorithm assumptions but fail in general and create artifacts or remove image fine structures. The main focus of this paper is, first, to define a general mathematical and experimental methodology to compare and classify classical image denoising algorithms and, second, to propose a nonlocal means (NL-means) algorithm addressing the preservation of structure in a digital image. The mathematical analysis is based on the analysis of the "method noise," defined as the difference between a digital image and its denoised version. The NL-means algorithm is proven to be asymptotically optimal under a generic statistical image model. The denoising performance of all considered methods are compared in four ways; mathematical: asymptotic order of magnitude of the method noise under regularity assumptions; perceptual-mathematical: the algorithms artifacts and their explanation as a violation of the image model; quantitative experimental: by tables of L 2 distances of the denoised version to the original image. The most powerful evaluation method seems, however, to be the visualization of the method noise on natural images. The more this method noise looks like a real white noise, the better the method.
Neighborhood filters are nonlocal image and movie filters which reduce the noise by averaging similar pixels. The first object of the paper is to present a unified theory of these filters and reliable criteria to compare them to other filter classes. A CCD noise model will be presented justifying the involvement of neighborhood filters. A classification of neighborhood filters will be proposed, including classical image and movie denoising methods and discussing further a recently introduced neighborhood filter, NL-means. In order to compare denoising methods three principles will be discussed. The first principle, "method noise", specifies that only noise must be removed from an image. A second principle will be introduced, "noise to noise", according to which a denoising method must transform a white noise into a white noise. Contrarily to "method noise", this principle, which characterizes artifact-free methods, eliminates any subjectivity and can be checked by mathematical arguments and Fourier analysis. "Noise to noise" will be proven to rule out most denoising methods, with the exception of neighborhood filters. This is why a third and new comparison principle, the "statistical optimality", is needed and will be introduced to compare the performance of all neighborhood filters.The three principles will be applied to compare ten different image and movie denoising methods. It will be first shown that only wavelet thresholding methods and NL-means give an acceptable method noise. Second, that neighborhood filters are the only ones to satisfy the "noise to noise" principle. Third, that among them NL-means is closest to statistical optimality. A particular attention will be paid to the application of the statistical optimality criterion for movie denoising methods. It will be pointed out that current movie denoising methods are motion compensated neighborhood filters. This amounts to say that they are neighborhood filters and that the ideal neighborhood of a pixel is its trajectory. Unfortunately the aperture problem makes it impossible to estimate ground true trajectories. It will be demonstrated that computing trajectories and restricting the neighborhood to them is harmful for denoising purposes and that space-time NL-means preserves more movie details.
We present in this paper a new denoising method called non-local means. The method is based on a simple principle: replacing the color of a pixel with an average of the colors of similar pixels. But the most similar pixels to a given pixel have no reason to be close at all. It is therefore licit to scan a vast portion of the image in search of all the pixels that really resemble the pixel one wants to denoise. The paper presents two implementations of the method and displays some results. Source CodeThe source code (ANSI C), its documentation, and the online demo are accessible at the IPOL web page of this article 1 . Some of the files use algorithms possibly linked to patent . These files are made available for the exclusive aim of serving as scientific tool to verify the soundness and completeness of the algorithm description. Compilation, execution and redistribution of these files may violate exclusive patents rights in certain countries. The situation being different for every country and changing over time, it is your responsibility to determine which patent rights restrictions apply to you before you compile, use, modify, or redistribute these files. The rest of files are distributed under GPL license. A C/C++ implementation is provided. Please see the readme file or the online documentation for details.
Diffusion Weighted Images (DWI) normally shows a low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) due to the presence of noise from the measurement process that complicates and biases the estimation of quantitative diffusion parameters. In this paper, a new denoising methodology is proposed that takes into consideration the multicomponent nature of multi-directional DWI datasets such as those employed in diffusion imaging. This new filter reduces random noise in multicomponent DWI by locally shrinking less significant Principal Components using an overcomplete approach. The proposed method is compared with state-of-the-art methods using synthetic and real clinical MR images, showing improved performance in terms of denoising quality and estimation of diffusion parameters.
In Magnetic Resonance Imaging image resolution comes limited by several factors such as hardware or time limitations. In many cases, the acquired images has to be upsampled to match on any specific resolution, in such cases, image interpolation techniques has been traditionally applied. However, traditional interpolation techniques are not able to recover high frequency information of the underlying high resolution data. In this paper, a new reconstruction method is proposed to recover some of this high frequency information by using a data adaptive patch-based regularization in combination with a subsampling coherence constraint. The proposed method has been evaluated on synthetic and real clinical cases and compared with traditional interpolation methods. The proposed method has shown to outperform classical interpolation methods compared.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.