BM3D is a recent denoising method based on the fact that an image has a locally sparse representation in transform domain. This sparsity is enhanced by grouping similar 2D image patches into 3D groups. In this paper we propose an open-source implementation of the method. We discuss the choice of all parameter methods and confirm their actual optimality. The description of the method is rewritten with a new notation. We hope this new notation is more transparent than in the original paper. A final index gives nonetheless the correspondence between the new notation and the original notation.
This paper describes the complete implementation of a blind image denoising algorithm, that takes any digital image as input. In a first step the algorithm estimates a Signal and Frequency Dependent (SFD) noise model. In a second step, the image is denoised by a multiscale adaptation of the Non-local Bayes denoising method. We focus here on a careful analysis of the denoising step and present a detailed discussion of the influence of its parameters. Extensive commented tests of the blind denoising algorithm are presented, on real JPEG images and on scans of old photographs. Source CodeThe source code (ANSI C), its documentation, and the online demo are accessible at the IPOL web page of this article 1 .
Digital images are matrices of equally spaced pixels, each containing a photon count. This photon count is a stochastic process due to the quantum nature of light. It follows that all images are noisy. Ever since digital images have existed, numerical methods have been proposed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Such ‘denoising’ methods require a noise model and an image model. It is relatively easy to obtain a noise model. As will be explained in the present paper, it is even possible to estimate it from a single noisy image.
This article presents a detailed implementation of the Non-Local Bayes (NL-Bayes) image denoising algorithm. In a nutshell, NL-Bayes is an improved variant of NL-means. In the NLmeans algorithm, each patch is replaced by a weighted mean of the most similar patches present in a neighborhood. Images being mostly self-similar, such instances of similar patches are generally found, and averaging them increases the SNR. The NL-Bayes strategy improves on NL-means by evaluating for each group of similar patches a Gaussian vector model. To each patch is therefore associated a mean (which would be the result of NL-means), but also a covariance matrix estimating the variability of the patch group. This permits to compute an optimal (in the sense of Bayesian minimal mean square error) estimate of each noisy patch in the group, by a simple matrix inversion. The implementation proceeds in two identical iterations, but the second iteration uses the denoised image of the first iteration to estimate better the mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian models. A discussion of the algorithm shows that it is close in spirit to several state of the art algorithms (TSID, BM3D, BM3D-SAPCA), and that its structure is actually close to BM3D. Thorough experimental comparison made in this paper also shows that the algorithm achieves the best state of the art on color images in terms of PSNR and image quality. On grey level images, it reaches a performance similar to the more complex BM3D-SAPCA (no color version is available for this last algorithm). Source CodeThe ANSI C implementation of NL-Bayes image denoising algorithm has been peer reviewed and accepted by IPOL. The source code, the code documentation, and the online demo are accessible at the IPOL web page of this article 1 .
Arguably several thousands papers are dedicated to image denoising. Most papers assume a fixed noise model, mainly white Gaussian or Poissonian. This assumption is only valid for raw images. Yet, in most images handled by the public and even by scientists, the noise model is imperfectly known or unknown. End users only dispose the result of a complex image processing chain effectuated by uncontrolled hardware and software (and sometimes by chemical means). For such images, recent progress in noise estimation permits to estimate from a single image a noise model, which is simultaneously signal and frequency dependent. We propose here a multiscale denoising algorithm adapted to this broad noise model. This leads to a blind denoising algorithm which we demonstrate on real JPEG images and on scans of old photographs for which the formation model is unknown. The consistency of this algorithm is also verified on simulated distorted images. This algorithm is finally compared with the unique state of the art previous blind denoising method.
The current state-of-the-art non-local algorithms for image denoising have the tendency to remove many low contrast details. Frequency-based algorithms keep these details, but on the other hand many artifacts are introduced. Recently, the Dual Domain Image Denoising (DDID) method has been proposed to address this issue. While beating the state-of-the-art, this algorithm still causes strong frequency domain artifacts. This paper reviews DDID under a different light, allowing to understand their origin. The analysis leads to the development of NLDD, a new denoising algorithm that outperforms DDID, BM3D and other state-of-the-art algorithms. NLDD is also three times faster than DDID and easily parallelizable.
K-SVD is a signal representation method which, from a set of signals, can derive a dictionary able to approximate each signal with a sparse combination of the atoms. This paper focuses on the K-SVD-based image denoising algorithm. The implementation is described in detail and its parameters are analyzed and varied to come up with a reliable implementation.
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