Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is one of the most studied neurotrophic factors. GDNF has two splice isoforms, full-length pre-α-pro-GDNF (α-GDNF) and pre-β-pro-GDNF (β-GDNF), which has a 26 amino acid deletion in the pro-region. Thus far, studies have focused solely on the α-GDNF isoform, and nothing is known about the in vivo effects of the shorter β-GDNF variant. Here we compare for the first time the effects of overexpressed α-GDNF and β-GDNF in non-lesioned rat striatum and the partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model of Parkinson's disease. GDNF isoforms were overexpressed with their native pre-pro-sequences in the striatum using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector, and the effects on motor performance and dopaminergic phenotype of the nigrostriatal pathway were assessed. In the non-lesioned striatum, both isoforms increased the density of dopamine transporter-positive fibers at 3 weeks after viral vector delivery. Although both isoforms increased the activity of the animals in cylinder assay, only α-GDNF enhanced the use of contralateral paw. Four weeks later, the striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactivity was decreased in both α-GDNF and β-GDNF treated animals. In the neuroprotection assay, both GDNF splice isoforms increased the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the substantia nigra but did not promote behavioral recovery based on amphetamine-induced rotation or cylinder assays. Thus, the shorter GDNF isoform, β-GDNF, and the full-length α-isoform have comparable neuroprotective efficacy on dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal circuitry.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multipurpose organelle comprising dynamic structural subdomains, such as ER sheets and tubules, serving to maintain protein, calcium, and lipid homeostasis. In neurons, the single ER is compartmentalized with a careful segregation of the structural subdomains in somatic and neurite (axodendritic) regions. The distribution and arrangement of these ER subdomains varies between different neuronal types. Mutations in ER membrane shaping proteins and morphological changes in the ER are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases implying significance of ER morphology in maintaining neuronal integrity. Specific neurons, such as the highly arborized dopaminergic neurons, are prone to stress and neurodegeneration. Differences in morphology and functionality of ER between the neurons may account for their varied sensitivity to stress and neurodegenerative changes. In this review, we explore the neuronal ER and discuss its distinct morphological attributes and specific functions. We hypothesize that morphological heterogeneity of the ER in neurons is an important factor that accounts for their selective susceptibility to neurodegeneration.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle of the cell, composed of a continuous network of sheets and tubules, and is involved in protein, calcium (Ca 2+ ) and lipid homeostasis. In neurons, the ER extends throughout the cell, both somal and axodendritic compartments, and is highly important for neuronal functions. A third of the proteome of a cell, secreted and membrane-bound proteins, are processed within the ER lumen and most of these proteins are vital for neuronal activity. The brain itself is high in lipid content and many structural lipids are produced, in part, by the ER. Cholesterol and steroid synthesis are strictly regulated in the ER of the blood-brain barrier protected brain cells. The high Ca 2+ level in the ER lumen and low cytosolic concentration is needed for Ca 2+based intracellular signaling, also for synaptic signaling and Ca 2+ waves, as well as preparing proteins for correct folding in the presence of high Ca 2+ concentrations to cope with the high concentrations of extracellular milieu. Particularly, ER Ca 2+ is controlled in axodendritic areas for proper neurito-and synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and remodeling. In this review, we cover the physiological functions of the neuronal ER and discuss it in context of common neurodegenerative diseases focusing on pharmacological regulation of ER Ca 2+ . Furthermore, we postulate that heterogeneity of the ER, its protein folding capacity and ensuring Ca 2+ regulation is a crucial factor for the aging and selective vulnerability of neurons in various neurodegenerative diseases.Significance statement ER Ca 2+ regulators are promising therapeutic targets for degenerative diseases for which efficacious drug therapies do not exist. The use of pharmacological probes targeting maintenance and restoration of ER Ca 2+ can provide restoration of protein homeostasis, e.g. folding of complex plasma membrane signalling receptors and slow down the degeneration process of neurons.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.