Background:The identity of calcium channels in the thyroid is undefined. Results: TRPC1 functions as a major regulator of S1P and VEGF receptors via a calcium-dependent mechanism. This is important for cell migration. Conclusion:We have defined a novel physiological role for the TRPC1 channel. Significance: This study explains how TRPC1 regulates receptor expression and migration in thyroid cancer cells.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid, which regulates several cancer-related processes including migration and angiogenesis. We have previously shown S1P to induce migration of follicular ML-1 thyroid cancer cells. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1) is an oxygen-sensitive transcription factor, which adapts cells to hypoxic conditions through increased survival, motility and angiogenesis. Due to these properties and its increased expression in response to intratumoral hypoxia, HIF-1 is considered a significant regulator of tumor biology. We found S1P to increase expression of the regulatory HIF-1α subunit in normoxic ML-1 cells. S1P also increased HIF-1 activity and expression of HIF-1 target genes. Importantly, inhibition or knockdown of HIF-1α attenuated the S1P-induced migration of ML-1 cells. S1P-induced HIF-1α expression was mediated by S1P receptor 3 (S1P3), Gi proteins and their downstream effectors MEK, PI3K, mTOR and PKCβI. Half-life measurements with cycloheximide indicated that S1P treatment stabilized the HIF-1α protein. On the other hand, S1P activated translational regulators eIF-4E and p70S6K, which are known to control HIF-1α synthesis. In conclusion, we have identified S1P as a non-hypoxic regulator of HIF-1 activity in thyroid cancer cells, studied the signaling involved in S1P-induced HIF-1α expression and shown S1P-induced migration to be mediated by HIF-1.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic with severe consequences for afflicted individuals and the society as a whole. The biology and infectivity of the virus has been intensively studied in order to gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of virus-host cell interactions during infection. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via its spike protein. Priming of the virus by specific proteases leads to viral entry via endocytosis and to the subsequent steps in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2. Sphingosine and ceramide belong to the sphingolipid family and are abundantly present in cell membranes. These lipids were recently shown to interfere with the uptake of virus particles of SARS-CoV-2 into epithelial cell lines and primary human nasal cells in culture. The mechanisms of action were partly different, as sphingosine blocked, whilst ceramide facilitated viral entry. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is vital for the generation of ceramide and functional inhibition of ASM by drugs like amitriptyline reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry into the epithelial cells. Recent data indicates that serum level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a prognostic factor for COVID-2 severity. Further, stimulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) might also constrain the hyper-inflammatory conditions linked to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we review recent exciting findings regarding sphingolipids in the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 and in the course of COVID-19 disease. More studies are required on the mechanisms of action and the potential use of antidepressant drugs and sphingolipid modifiers in SARS-CoV-2 infections and in the treatment of the more serious and fatal consequences of the disease.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive form of human thyroid cancer, lacking any effective treatment. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and human ether-a 0 -go-go-related gene (HERG (KCNH2)) potassium channels are important modulators of cell migration. In this study, we have shown that the S1P 1-3 receptors are expressed in C643 and THJ-16T human ATC cell lines, both at mRNA and protein level. S1P inhibited migration of these cells and of follicular FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells. Using the S1P 1,3 inhibitor VPC-23019, the S1P 2 inhibitor JTE-013, and the S1P 2 receptor siRNA, we showed that the effect was mediated through S1P 2 . Treatment of the cells with the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase abolished the effect of S1P on migration. S1P attenuated Rac activity, and inhibiting Rac decreased migration. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor enhanced basal migration of cells, and addition of exogenous S1P inhibited migration. C643 cells expressed a nonconducting HERG protein, and S1P decreased HERG protein expression. The HERG blocker E-4031 decreased migration. Interestingly, downregulating HERG protein with siRNA decreased the basal migration. In experiments using HEK cells overexpressing HERG, we showed that S1P decreased channel protein expression and current and that S1P attenuated migration of the cells. We conclude that S1P attenuates migration of C643 ATC cells by activating S1P 2 and the Rho pathway. The attenuated migration is also, in part, dependent on a S1P-induced decrease of HERG protein.
Calcium (Ca2+) is perhaps the most versatile signaling molecule in cells. Ca2+ regulates a large number of key events in cells, ranging from gene transcription, motility, and contraction, to energy production and channel gating. To accomplish all these different functions, a multitude of channels, pumps, and transporters are necessary. A group of channels participating in these processes is the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels. These channels are divided into 29 subfamilies, and are differentially expressed in man, rodents, worms, and flies. One of these subfamilies is the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) family of channels. This ion channel family comprises of seven isoforms, labeled TRPC1–7. In man, six functional forms are expressed (TRPC1, TRPC3–7), whereas TRPC2 is a pseudogene; thus, not functionally expressed. In this review, we will describe the importance of the TRPC channels and their interacting molecular partners in the etiology of cancer, particularly in regard to regulating migration and invasion.
Metabolites of sphingomyelin, as well as calcium ion fluxes, have a profound role in cellular signaling in almost all cell types. In addition, metabolites of sphingomyelin often modulate calcium signaling, either directly or indirectly. This is an interesting aspect on how lipids may wield their physiological role, as calcium is probably one of the most versatile signaling molecules in the cell, and as modulation of calcium signaling has profound effects on cellular physiology. The aim of this review is to discuss the mechanisms by which metabolites of sphingomyelin, especially the sphingolipids sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), modulate calcium fluxes, and how this may affect cellular function. In addition, the pathological aspects of sphingolipid-evoked modulation of calcium fluxes will be discussed.
Background The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in non-acetaminophen-related drug-induced liver injury. A subsequent review and analysis reported the current evidence to be inconclusive. Herein, we present an updated review and meta-analysis. Methods We evaluated prospective, retrospective and randomized controlled trials that compared outcomes in patients of all ages with acute liver failure (defined as abnormal liver enzymes along with elevated international normalized ratio >1.5, with or without hepatic encephalopathy) receiving NAC with the outcomes in a control group. The primary outcome was to compare the overall survival in the 2 groups. Secondary outcomes included difference in length of hospital stay, transplant-free survival, and post-transplant survival. Results Seven studies (N=883) that met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. The mean age of patients in the NAC group was 21.22 years compared with 23.62 years in the control group. The odds of overall survival were significantly higher in the NAC group than in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.41). Post-transplant survival (OR 2.44, 95%CI 1.11-5.37) and transplant-free survival were also better in the NAC group than in the control group (OR 2.85, 95%CI 2.11-3.85). Patients in the control group had statistically significant odds of a longer inpatient stay (mean difference 7.79, 95%CI 6.93-8.66). Conclusion In patients with non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure, NAC significantly improves overall survival, post-transplant survival and transplant-free survival while decreasing the overall length of hospital stay.
In anaplastic thyroid cancer C643 cells, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) attenuates migration by activating the S1P2 receptor and the Rho-ROCK pathway. In the present study, we show that stimulating C643 cells with S1P decreases the expression, secretion and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), and to a lesser extent MMP9. Using receptor-specific antagonists, and S1P2 siRNA, we showed that the inhibition of expression of MMP2 is mediated through S1P2. Furthermore, S1P inhibited calpain activity, and inhibiting calpain pharmacologically, inhibited the effect of S1P on MMP2 expression and activity, and on MMP9 activity. S1P treatment increased Rho activity, and by incubating cells with the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase or the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, the S1P-induced inhibition of invasion and MMP2 expression and activity was abolished. We conclude that S1P attenuates the invasion of C643 cells by activating S1P2 and the Rho-ROCK pathway, by decreasing calpain activity, and by decreasing the expression, secretion and activity of MMP2 and, to a lesser extent, MMP9. Our results thus unveil a novel function for the S1P2 receptor in attenuating thyroid cancer cell invasion.
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