The aim of this study is to report on the oral lesions detected in 123 patients diagnosed at the University Hospital of Bari from October 2020 to December 2020, focusing on the correlation of clinical and pathological features in order to purpose a new classification. Methods. General and specialistic anamnesis were achieved and oral examination was performed. The following data were collected: age/gender, general symptoms and form of Covid-19, presence and features of taste disorders, day of appearance of the oral lesions, type and features of oral lesions and day of beginning of therapies. If ulcerative lesions did not heal, biopsy was performed. Results. Many types of oral lesions were found and classified into four groups considering the timing of appearance and the start of the therapies. Early lesions in the initial stages of Covid-19 before the start of therapies was observed in 65.9% of the patients. In the histopathological analysis of four early lesions, thrombosis of small and middle size vessels was always noticed with necrosis of superficial tissues. Conclusion. The presence of oral lesions in early stages of Covid-19 could represent an initial sign of peripheral thrombosis, a warning sign of possible evolution to severe illness. This suggests that anticoagulant therapies should start as soon as possible.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe side effect of antiresorptive (bisphosphonates and denosumab) and anti-angiogenic therapy used in the management of oncologic and, less frequently, osteoporotic patients. While there is good international agreement on the diagnostic and staging criteria of MRONJ and the cessation of antiresorptive/anti-angiogenic treatments, the gold standard of treatment is still controversial, in particular between non-surgical and surgical approaches.The former usually includes antiseptic mouth rinse, cyclic antibiotic therapy, low-level laser therapy and periodic dental checks; the latter consists of surgical necrotic bone removal. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the therapeutic approaches and outcomes of 131 lesions from 106 MRONJ patients treated at the Policlinic of Bari. Non-surgical treatments were chosen for 24 lesions that occurred in 21 patients who, due to comorbidities and/or the impossibility of stopping oncologic therapies, could not undergo surgical treatment. As to the outcome, all the surgically treated lesions (107) showed complete healing, with the exception of 13.5% of the lesions, all of which were stage III, which did not completely heal but showed reduction to stage I. The 24 non-surgically treated lesions never completely healed and, rather, generally remained stable. Only two cases exhibited a reduction in staging.Based on our observations, MRONJ occurring both in neoplastic and non-neoplastic patients benefits more from a surgical treatment approach, whenever deemed possible, as non-surgical treatments do not seem to allow complete healing of the lesions.
Patient: Female, 49Final Diagnosis: Medication related osteonecrosis of the jawSymptoms: Painful bone exposure • pus dischargeMedication: InfliximabClinical Procedure: Surgical removal of necrotic boneSpecialty: SurgeryObjective:Unusual clinical courseBackground:Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe adverse drug reaction, occurring in patients undergoing treatments with antiresorptive or antiangiogenic agents, such as bisphosphonates, denosumab, or bevacizumab, for different oncologic and non-oncologic diseases. The aim of this study was to report a case of MRONJ in a patient taking infliximab, an anti-TNF-α antibody used to treat Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and plaque psoriasis.Case Report:A 49-year-old female patient affected by Crohn’s disease, who had been undergoing 250 mg intravenous infliximab every six weeks for 12 years, with no history of antiresorptive or antiangiogenic agent administration, came to our attention for post-surgical MRONJ, associated with a wide cutaneous necrotic area of her anterior mandible. Following antibiotic cycles, the patient underwent surgical treatment with wide bone resection and debridement of necrotic tissues; after prolonged follow-up (16 months), the patient completely healed without signs of recurrence.Conclusions:Prevention of MRONJ by dental check-up before and during treatments with antiresorptive treatments (bisphosphonates or denosumab) is a well-established procedure. Although further studies are required to confirm the role of infliximab in MRONJ, based on the results of this study, we propose that patients who are going to be treated with infliximab should also undergo dental check-up before starting therapy, to possibly avoid MRONJ onset.
Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is the most serious side effect in patients receiving bisphosphonates (BPs) for neoplastic disease and osteoporosis. The aim of this study is to propose a new dimensional stage classification, guiding the surgical treatment of BRONJ patients, and to evaluate the success rate of this new management. From 2004 to 2013, 203 neoplastic and osteoporotic patients with 266 BRONJ lesions were referred to the Odontostomatology Unit of the University of Bari. All patients underwent surgery after suspension of BPs therapy and antibiotic treatment. The surgical procedure was complemented by piezosurgery and followed by the application of hyaluronate and amino acids. The new dimensional staging suggests the choice of the surgical approach, and allows the prediction of postoperative complications and soft and hard tissues healing time, guiding the surgical treatment protocol. This protocol could be a successful management strategy for BRONJ, considering the low recurrences rate and the good stabilisation of the surgical sites observed after a long-term follow-up.
We investigated the association between 9 polymorphisms of genes encoding hemostasis factors and myocardial infarction in a large sample of young patients chosen because they have less coronary atherosclerosis than older patients, and thus their disease is more likely to be related to a genetic predisposition to a prothrombotic state.
Methods and Results—
This nationwide case-control study involved 1210 patients who had survived a first myocardial infarction at an age of <45 years who underwent coronary arteriography in 125 coronary care units and 1210 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and geographical origin. None of the 9 polymorphisms of genes encoding proteins involved in coagulation (G-455A β-fibrinogen: OR, 1.0; CI, 0.8 to 1.2; G1691A factor V: OR, 1.1; CI, 0.6 to 2.1; G20210A factor II: OR, 1.0; CI, 0.5 to 1.9; and G10976A factor VII: OR, 1.0; CI, 0.8 to 1.3), platelet function (C807T glycoprotein Ia: OR, 1.1; CI, 0.9 to 1.3; and C1565T glycoprotein IIIa: OR, 0.9; CI, 0.8 to 1.2), fibrinolysis (G185T factor XIII: OR, 1.2; CI, 0.9 to 1.6; and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1: OR, 0.9; CI, 0.7 to 1.2), or homocysteine metabolism (C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: OR, 0.9; CI, 0.8 to 1.1) were associated with an increased or decreased risk of myocardial infarction.
This study provides no evidence supporting an association between 9 polymorphisms of genes encoding proteins involved in hemostasis and the occurrence of premature myocardial infarction or protection against it.
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