BackgroundPhlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques.MethodsThe sand fly fauna was studied in different environments (i.e. forest and peridomestic environments in a rural area, and an urban forest) using Shannon traps and HP light traps to collect sand fly specimens over 13 consecutive months (December 2014 to January 2016). For investigating natural infection by Leishmania and the source of sand fly blood meals, DNA samples were extracted from female sand flies and subjected to polymerase chain reaction targeting ITS1 and cytb genes. DNA sequencing was subsequently used to identify species of Leishmania and the source of blood meals.ResultsA total of 2515 individual sand flies of 43 species were collected and identified, Trichophoromyia auraensis (839; 33.35%), Trichophoromyia spp. (537; 21.35%) and Evandromyia saulensis (187; 7.43%) were more abundant in the rural area (S = 41 species) than in the urban forest. No significant differences were found in species richness between forest and peridomestic environments in the rural area (H = 0.04; P > 0.05), but a larger number of species was found in the forest. Leishmania DNA was sequenced in 13 samples, confirming the presence of L. (V.) braziliensis in Th. auraensis (n = 1), Ev. saulensis (n = 2), Ev. walkeri (n = 1), Ps. llanosmartinsi (n = 1), Pi. nevesi (n = 2), Ps. davisi (n = 1), Ps. ayrozai (n = 1), Pa. aragaoi (n = 1), Ny. antunesi (n = 1) and Ev. infraspinosa (n = 1). Only Ps. ayrozai possessed a sequence similar to that of L. (V.) guyanensis (99%). Through microscopic analysis, five specimens of Ev. saulensis were found to possess flagellate forms in the hindgut, with an infection rate of 2.4%. Samples from 33 fed females were submitted to cytb gene amplification, for which sequencing determined that all were similar to the sequence deposited on GenBank for Gallus gallus (domestic chicken).ConclusionsThe high abundance of Trichophoromyia auraensis and Ev. saulensis, and the detection of L. (V.) braziliensis DNA, suggests that both species may be vectors of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Psychodopygus ayrozai was found to be infected by L. (V) braziliesnsis and L. (V.) guyanensis, and although collected in low abundance, it may be a potential vector in the region. The sand fly fauna was found to be rich and diverse with predominance of the genus Psychodopygus. Identification of food sources of fed females showed that 100% amplified a gene region compatible with the domestic chicken, which although considered refractory in the disease...
BackgroundAcre has reported the highest incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil in recent years. The present study seeks to identify high and low risk agglomerations of ACL in space and space-time during the period from 2007 to 2013 in Acre, and also to characterize the occurrence of the disease in time and according to sociodemographic variables.MethodsThis is an ecological study, the study population of which consisted of autochthonous ACL cases notified in the municipalities of Acre by an epidemiological surveillance system. Scan statistics of SaTScan™ software were used to identify spatial and space-time clusters. In addition, the cases were characterized by sex, age, home situation (in a rural or urban area), and temporal tendency.ResultsAcre reported an incidence rate of 12.4 cases per 10 000 inhabitant-years in the study period, with the rates varied greatly (standard deviation of 21.8) among their 22 municipalities. One agglomeration of high risk and three of low risk were detected in space and space-time. Four of the five micro-regions of Acre presented a stationary temporal tendency. The profile of transmission varied according to the micro-region. Generally speaking, the disease occurred more often among young people, those of male gender, and those living in rural areas.ConclusionsAcre has stood out within the Brazilian national context due to its high rates of ACL incidence in the central region of the Acre Valley. The high rates in the micro-region of Brasiléia are related to the disease’s intra/peridomiciliary occurrence, and it would seem that the municipality of Sena Madureira is approaching a transmission pattern similar to that of Brasiléia. In other micro-regions, the profile of the disease’s transmission is mainly related to the forest/sylvatic cycle of ACL.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40249-017-0311-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The study sought to analyze clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Data from 2008 to 2014 registered in the notification records of the disease of the Information System of the Complaints of Notification (SINAN), and the data of the Information Department of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) available from 2007 to 2013 were used and analyzed in the light of the statistics of the temporal series by the Prais-Winsten method and chi-squared test. A total of 906 cases were registered with 60.2% occurring in men and 39.7% in women. The groups from 0 to 4 years of age (48.0%) and from 5 to 19 years of age (23.3%) were the most affected. Regarding the clinical forms, 77.7% presented CL and 22.3% mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Among the 896 cases with information on the diagnostic methods used, Montenegro’s skin test predominated (66.4%), with a positive result of 95.8% for CL and 99.3% for MCL. Treatment with N-methylglucamine antimony was performed in 99.4% of the cases, but discontinuously used in the majority of patients. This study presents information which may be used as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of the disease in Xapuri, a region which depends essentially on forest resources and ecological tourism.
The aim of this study was to identify behavioral aspects of the sandfly fauna of a fishing tourism area in the municipality of Bonito (MS). Monthly captures were undertaken from December 2009 to November 2010, using automatic CDC type light traps, from 18h00 to 06h00, in a forested area, a savannah area, peridomiciles and animal shelters near peridomiciliary areas. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most frequent out of a total of 6,699 specimens collected, belonging to 16 species, followed by Psathyromyia bigeniculata and Lutzomyia longipalpis, found in all the environments investigated, though in their greatest numbers in the animal shelters. Ny. whitmani exhibited its highest frequencies during the dry months, coincident with the fishing season, when the risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis for tourists and inhabitants increases. Noteworthy was the finding of two species naturally infected by flagellates: Ny. whitmani and Pa. bigeniculata. The local population and visiting tourists should be warned of the threat posed by leishmaniasis and the health authorities alerted to the need for adopting environmental sanitary measures, especially regarding such animal shelters as they seem to provide favorable conditions to the proliferation, maintenance and breeding opportunities of phlebotomines.
Psathyromyia shannoni until recently presented several taxa: Phlebotomus limai, Ph. bigeniculatus, Ph. pifanoi, and Ph. microcephalus as its junior synonyms. In a previous study, the two former synonyms were resurrected and here a revision based on morphological characters of the taxonomic status of Ph. microcephalus and Ph. pifanoi is presented. Psathyromyia pifanoi STAT REV; COMB N: is resurrected from the synonymy of Pa. shannoni and its female is described. Phlebotomus microcephalus is removed from the synonymy of Pa. shannoni and proposed as a new synonym of Pa. bigeniculata Lutzomyia cuzquena SYN N: , occurring in the Amazon region, is designated as a junior synonym of Pa. pifanoi The geographical distributions of Pa shannoni, Pa. bigeniculata, and Pa. pifanoi in the Americas are presented.
In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps’ performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Samples were collected once a month during the period August 2013 to July 2015. A sample of females was dissected to test for natural infection by flagellates. A total of 6,309 (864 males and 5,445 females) specimens (36 species) were collected. Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai (42%), Nyssomyia shawi (36%), and Psychodopygus davisi (13%), together represented 90% of the insects collected. Nyssomyia shawi and Psychodopygus davisi were more attracted by the white color. Specimens of Nyssomyia shawi, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus were found naturally infected by flagellates in the mid and hindgut. This is the first study in Acre state using and comparing both black and white Shannon traps, demonstrating the richness, diversity, and anthropophilic behavior of the phlebotomine species and identifying proven and putative vectors of the etiological agents of leishmaniasis.
BackgroundBonito municipality, known as an area of ecoturism, in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, is also a focus of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases, with cases registered in both human and canine populations. This study sought to investigate natural infection by flagellate forms of Leishmania in phlebotomines of the urban area of Bonito.FindingsSand flies were collected fortnightly from October 2005 to July 2006 with modified automatic light traps installed in peridomiciles and animal shelters in the center and on the outskirts of the city. The females were dissected and their guts observed under an optical microscope. A total of 1977 specimens were captured, Lutzomyia longipalpis (88.4 %) and Bichromomyia flaviscutelata (3.0 %) being the most frequent species. Bi. flaviscutellata was found infected by flagellates that were identified as Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis by indirect immunofluorescence reaction, employing monoclonal antibodies and the biotin-avidin system. This is the first report of natural infection by L. amazonensis in Bi. flaviscutellata in a Brazilian urban area.ConclusionsAs Bi. flaviscutellata is only slightly attracted by humans, the transmission of L. amazonensis in the study area may have a zoonotic character; however, the sympatric occurrence of this parasite and Lu. longipalpis should be taken into consideration by the local health authorities since this sand fly has already been found with L. amazonensis DNA in a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bonito municipality.
The phlebotomine fauna of Campo Grande city, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil, an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, has been thoroughly investigated, but all the insect collections were undertaken with automatic light traps. The present study sought to investigate the fauna in this city using Shannon and Disney traps, having human beings and hamsters, respectively, as bait. Both types of traps were installed in forest fragment and peridomiciliary areas in the period from 2007 to 2009. The phlebotomine females were analyzed by PCR for Leishmania identification. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the only species collected in the peridomiciles and rendered a total of 574 specimens with a 5.2:1 male:female ratio. A total of eight species were attracted to the two traps (one of each type) installed in the forest fragment, including: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia bourrouli, Evandromyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia bigeniculata, and Sciopemyia sordellii. A total of 143 specimens were collected, Bi. flaviscutellata accounting for 81% and Lu. longipalpis for 1.4% of them. In one female of Lu. longipalpis collected in a Disney trap installed in a peridomicile, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum DNA was found, thus strengthening the hypothesis that the transmission of leishmaniasis is in fact occurring in the anthropic environment.
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