Abstract-One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for specific graph signal denoising and interpolation problems. The philosophy, to design the ARMA coefficients independently from the underlying graph, renders the ARMA graph filters suitable in static and, particularly, time-varying settings. The latter occur when the graph signal and/or graph topology are changing over time. We show that in case of a time-varying graph signal our approach extends naturally to a two-dimensional filter, operating concurrently in the graph and regular time domain. We also derive the graph filter behavior, as well as sufficient conditions for filter stability when the graph and signal are time-varying. The analytical and numerical results presented in this paper illustrate that ARMA graph filters are practically appealing for static and time-varying settings, as predicted by theoretical derivations.
Abstract-An emerging way to deal with highdimensional non-euclidean data is to assume that the underlying structure can be captured by a graph. Recently, ideas have begun to emerge related to the analysis of time-varying graph signals. This work aims to elevate the notion of joint harmonic analysis to a full-fledged framework denoted as Time-Vertex Signal Processing, that links together the time-domain signal processing techniques with the new tools of graph signal processing. This entails three main contributions: (a) We provide a formal motivation for harmonic time-vertex analysis as an analysis tool for the state evolution of simple Partial Differential Equations on graphs. (b) We improve the accuracy of joint filtering operators by up-to two orders of magnitude. (c) Using our joint filters, we construct time-vertex dictionaries analyzing the different scales and the local time-frequency content of a signal. The utility of our tools is illustrated in numerous applications and datasets, such as dynamic mesh denoising and classification, still-video inpainting, and source localization in seismic events. Our results suggest that joint analysis of time-vertex signals can bring benefits to regression and learning.
Several organizations, like social networks, store and routinely analyze large graphs as part of their daily operation. Such graphs are typically distributed across multiple servers, and graph partitioning is critical for efficient graph management. Existing partitioning algorithms focus on finding graph partitions with good locality, but disregard the pragmatic challenges of integrating partitioning into large-scale graph management systems deployed on the cloud, such as dealing with the scale and dynamicity of the graph and the compute environment.In this paper, we propose Spinner, a scalable and adaptive graph partitioning algorithm based on label propagation designed on top of the Pregel model. Spinner scales to massive graphs, produces partitions with locality and balance comparable to the state-of-the-art and efficiently adapts the partitioning upon changes. We describe our algorithm and its implementation in the Pregel programming model that makes it possible to partition billion-vertex graphs. We evaluate Spinner with a variety of synthetic and real graphs and show that it can compute partitions with quality comparable to the state-of-the art. In fact, by using Spinner in conjunction with the Giraph graph processing engine, we speed up different applications by a factor of 2 relative to standard hash partitioning.
Abstract-We introduce the concept of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) filters on a graph and show how they can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Our graph filter design philosophy is independent of the particular graph, meaning that the filter coefficients are derived irrespective of the graph. In contrast to finite-impulse response (FIR) graph filters, ARMA graph filters are robust against changes in the signal and/or graph. In addition, when time-varying signals are considered, we prove that the proposed graph filters behave as ARMA filters in the graph domain and, depending on the implementation, as first or higher ARMA filters in the time domain.
Graph-based techniques emerged as a choice to deal with the dimensionality issues in modeling multivariate time series. However, there is yet no complete understanding of how the underlying structure could be exploited to ease this task. This work provides contributions in this direction by considering the forecasting of a process evolving over a graph. We make use of the (approximate) time-vertex stationarity assumption, i.e., timevarying graph signals whose first and second order statistical moments are invariant over time and correlated to a known graph topology. The latter is combined with VAR and VARMA models to tackle the dimensionality issues present in predicting the temporal evolution of multivariate time series.We find out that by projecting the data to the graph spectral domain: (i) the multivariate model estimation reduces to that of fitting a number of uncorrelated univariate ARMA models and (ii) an optimal low-rank data representation can be exploited so as to further reduce the estimation costs. In the case that the multivariate process can be observed at a subset of nodes, the proposed models extend naturally to Kalman filtering on graphs allowing for optimal tracking. Numerical experiments with both synthetic and real data validate the proposed approach and highlight its benefits over state-of-the-art alternatives.
Abstract-Graph filters play a key role in processing the graph spectra of signals supported on the vertices of a graph. However, despite their widespread use, graph filters have been analyzed only in the deterministic setting, ignoring the impact of stochasticity in both the graph topology as well as the signal itself. To bridge this gap, we examine the statistical behavior of the two key filter types, finite impulse response (FIR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) graph filters, when operating on random timevarying graph signals (or random graph processes) over random time-varying graphs. Our analysis shows that (i) in expectation, the filters behave as the same deterministic filters operating on a deterministic graph, being the expected graph, having as input signal a deterministic signal, being the expected signal, and (ii) there are meaningful upper bounds for the variance of the filter output. We conclude the paper by proposing two novel ways of exploiting randomness to improve (joint graph-time) noise cancellation, as well as to reduce the computational complexity of graph filtering. As demonstrated by numerical results, these methods outperform the disjoint average and denoise algorithm, and yield a (up to) four times complexity redution, with very little difference from the optimal solution.
Recent trends of incorporating attention mechanisms in vision have led researchers to reconsider the supremacy of convolutional layers as a primary building block. Beyond helping CNNs to handle long-range dependencies, Ramachandran et al. (2019) showed that attention can completely replace convolution and achieve state-of-the-art performance on vision tasks. This raises the question: do learned attention layers operate similarly to convolutional layers? This work provides evidence that attention layers can perform convolution and, indeed, they often learn to do so in practice. Specifically, we prove that a multi-head self-attention layer with sufficient number of heads is at least as expressive as any convolutional layer. Our numerical experiments then show that self-attention layers attend to pixel-grid patterns similarly to CNN layers, corroborating our analysis. Our code is publicly available 1 .
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