Lisbon is a European Mediterranean city, greatly exposed to heatwaves (HW), according to recent trends and climate change prospects. Considering the Atlantic influence, air temperature observations from Lisbon’s mesoscale network are used to investigate the interactions between background weather and the urban thermal signal (UTS) in summer. Days are classified according to the prevailing regional wind direction, and hourly UTS is compared between HW and non-HW conditions. Northern-wind days predominate, revealing greater maximum air temperatures (up to 40 ˚C) and greater thermal amplitudes (approximately 10 ˚C), and account for 37 out of 49 HW days; southern-wind days have milder temperatures, and no HWs occur. Results show that the wind direction groups are significantly different. While southern-wind days have minor UTS variations, northern-wind days have a consistent UTS daily cycle: a diurnal urban cooling island (UCI) (often lower than –1.0 ˚C), a late afternoon peak urban heat island (UHI) (occasionally surpassing 4.0 ˚C), and a stable nocturnal UHI (1.5 ˚C median intensity). UHI/UCI intensities are not significantly different between HW and non-HW conditions, although the synoptic influence is noted. Results indicate that, in Lisbon, the UHI intensity does not increase during HW events, although it is significantly affected by wind. As such, local climate change adaptation strategies must be based on scenarios that account for the synergies between potential changes in regional air temperature and wind.
This study presents a qualitative analysis on the representation of black women in comic books using a sociocultural approach to their production-release background. We study the X-Men mutant character Storm, whose path reinforces and questions the social roles these women enact. We state that the analysis of cultural assets aimed at entertainment, like comic books, helps us consider the relationship between gender and ethnicity in our society.
Numerical climate models render data in a gridded format which is often problematic for integrated analysis with other kinds of data in jurisdictional formats. In this paper a joint analysis of municipal Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPc) and predicted temperature increase was undertaken in order to estimate different levels of human and economic exposure. This is based on a method of converting model outputs into a country municipal grid which enabled depicting climate predictions from the Eta-Hadgem2-ES Regional Climate Model (RCM) into the municipal level in Brazil. The conversion to country municipality grid was made using a combination of interpolation and buffering techniques in ArcGIS for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) and three timeframes (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) for mean temperature increase and number of heatwave days (WSDI). The results were used to support the Third National Communication (TCN) of Brazil to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and show a coherent matching of the gridded output from the original RCM. The joint climate and GDPc analysis show that in the beginning of the century the more severe warming is centred over regions where GDPc is generally higher (Centre-West and Southeast). At the end of the century, critical levels of warming spread north and northeastwards where municipalities have the lowest GDPc levels. In the high emission scenario (RCP 8.5), the strongest warming and the spreading over poorer regions are anticipated to the mid-century. These results are the key to further explore solutions for climate change adaptation based on current resources and prepare in different sectors, for long-term risk management and climate adaptation planning strategies.
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